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CHECKLIST 
OF 
GEKKONOID LIZARDS 




ARNOLD G. KLUGE 

Museum of Zoology 
& 
Department of Biology 
University of Michigan 




SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL INFORMATION 
SERVICE 
NO. 85 



1991 



SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL 
INFORMATION 
SERVICE 



The SHIS series publishes and distributes translations, 
bibliographies, indices, and similar items judged useful 
to individuals interested in the biology of amphibians 
and reptiles, but unlikely to be published in the normal 
technical journals. Single copies are distributed free 
to interested individuals. Libraries, herpetological 
associations, and research laboratories are invited to 
exchange their publications with the Division of 
Amphibians and Reptiles. 

We wish to encourage individuals to share their 
bibliographies, translations, etc. with other 
herpetologists through the SHIS series. If you have 
such items please contact George Zug for instructions on 
preparation and submission. Contributors receive 50 
free copies. 

Please address all requests for copies and inquiries to 
George Zug, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, 
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington DC 20560 USA. Please include 
a self-addressed mailing label with requests. 




INTRODUCTION 

The following list includes all genus and species group 
names of extant gekkonoid lizards, their authors and years of 
publication. Most of the taxa I recognize are based on current 
common usage, and no attempt has been made to assess the 
monophyly of any genus. Junior objective and subjective synonyms 
are placed in parentheses. According to Article 80c of the ICZN, 
I follow existing usage in those cases under consideration by the 
Commission (e.g., Case 2527; BZN 46:38-40, 46-48, regarding 
Nactus arnouxii A. Dumeril [1851] and Nactus pelagicus Girard 
[1858]). An asterisk is applied to all recognized subspecies, 
taxa followed by a guestion mark reguire further study, and a 
nomen nudum is followed by n.n. Not all unjustified emendations 
are noted in this abbreviated compilation. The list was derived 
from my manuscript of gekkonoid synonymies, wherein complete 
literature references, type localities and primary types are 
given. I would greatly appreciate notification of additions and 
corrections to the following list so that the complete version 
can be published with minimal errors. I wish to thank Aaron 
Bauer, Ross Sadlier and Glenn Shea for their assistance. 



CHECKLIST 

Aclys Kluge, 1974 

concinna Kluge, 1974 (major* Storr, 1987) 

Aeluroscalabotes Boulenger, 1887 (Aelurosaurus Boulenger, 1885) 
felinus Giinther, 1864 (borneensis Giinther, 1864; 
dorsalis W. Peters, 1871; longicaudatus 
Andersson, 1924; multituberculatus* [?] 
Kopstein, 1927) 

Afroedura Loveridge, 1944 

africana Boulenger, 1888 (namaquensis* FitzSimons, 

1938; tirasensis* Haacke , 1965) 
amatolica Hewitt, 1925 
bogerti Loveridge, 1944 
hawequensis Mouton and Mostert, 1985 
karroica Hewitt, 1925 (wilmoti Hewitt, 1926; 

halli* Hewitt, 1935) 
nivaria Boulenger, 1894 
pondolia Hewitt, 1925 (multiporis* Hewitt, 1925; 

langi* FitzSimons, 1930; marleyi* FitzSimons, 

1930; haackei* Onderstall, 1984; major* 

Onderstall, 1984) 
tembulica Hewitt, 1926 
transvaalica Hewitt, 1925 (platyceps Hewitt, 1925; 

loveridgei* Broadly, 1963) 

Agamura Blanford, 1874 (Rhinogekko de Witte, 1973) 
femoral is M. A. Smith, 19 3 3 



gastropholis Werner, 1917 

misonnei de Witte, 1973 

persica A. Dumeril, 1856 (cruralis Blanford, 1874) 



Ailuronyx Fitzinger, 1843 (Theconyx Gray, 1845; 
Aeluronyx Agassiz, 1846) 
seychellensis Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 
trachygaster A. Dumeril, 1851 

Alsophylax Fitzinger, 1843 (Altiphylax Jeriomtschenko 

and Shcherbak, 1984) 
laevis Nikolsky, 1907 (kashkarovi Andrushko, 1968) 
loricatus Strauch, 1887 (szczerbaki* Golubev and 

Sattarov, 1979) 
pipiens Pallas, 1811 
przewalskii Strauch, 1887 (microtis Blanford, 

1875) 
tadjikiensis Golubev, 1979 
tokobajevi Jeriomtschenko and Shcherbak, 1984 

Aprasia Gray, 1839 (Ophioseps Barboza du Bocage, 1873; 

Ophiopsiseps Boulenger, 1887) 
aurita Kluge, 1974 
fusca Storr, 1979 
haroldi Storr, 1978 
inaurita Kluge, 1974 
parapulchella Kluge, 1974 
pseudopulchella Kluge, 1974 
pulchella Gray, 1839 (nasutus Barboza du Bocage, 

187 3; brevirostris Werner, 1909) 
repens Fry, 1914 
rostrata Parker, 1956 
smithi Storr, 1970 
striolata Lutken, 1863 (lineolata Lutken, 1863; 

octolineata W. Peters, 1864; glauerti Parker, 

1956) 

Aristelliger Cope, 1862 (Idiodactylus Bocourt, 1870; 
Aristelligella Noble and Klingel, 1932) 
barbouri Noble and Klingel, 1932 

cochranae Grant, 1931 (expectatus* Cochran, 1933) 
georgeensis Bocourt, 1873 (irregularis Cope, 1885) 
hechti Schwartz and Crombie, 1975 
lar Cope, 1862 

praesignis Hallowell, 1857 (nelsoni* Barbour, 
1914) 

Asaccus Dixon and S. Anderson, 1973 

elisae Werner, 1895 (eugeniae Nikolskij, 1907; 

ingae Eiselt, 1973) 
gallagheri Arnold, 197 2 



griseonotus Dixon and S. Anderson, 1973 

Asiocolotes Golubev, 1984 

depressus Minton and J. A. Anderson, 1965 
levitoni Golubev and Shcherbak, 1979 

Bavayia Roux, 1913 

crassicollis Roux, 1913) 

cyclura Giinther, 1872 (neocaledonicus Barboza du 

Bocage, 187 3; bavayi Sauvage, 1878) 
montana Roux, 1913 
ornata Roux, 1913 
sauvagii Boulenger, 1883 
septuiclavis Sadlier, 1988 
validiclavis Sadlier, 1988 

Bogertia Loveridge, 1941 

lutzae Loveridge, 1941 

Briba Amaral, 1935 

brasiliana Amaral, 1935 

Bunopus Blanford, 1874 {Trachydactylus Haas and Battersby, 1959) 

crassicauda Nikolsky, 1907 

spatalurus J. Anderson, 1901 (jolensis Haas and 
Battersby, 1959; hajarensis* Arnold, 1980) 

tuberculatus Blanford, 1874 (blanfordii Strauch, 

1887; gabrielis Werner, 1936; biporus Werner, 
1938; abudhabi Leviton and S. Anderson, 1967) 

Calodactylodes Strand, 1870 (Calodactylus Beddome, 1870) 
aureus Beddome, 1870 
illingworthi Deraniyagala, 1953 

Carinatogecko Golubev and Shcherbak, 1981 
aspratilis S. Anderson, 1973 
heteropholis Minton, S. Anderson, and J. A. 
Anderson, 1970 

Carphodactylus Giinther, 1897 
laevis Giinther, 1897 

Chondrodactylus W. Peters, 1870 

angulifer W. Peters, 1870 (weirei Boulenger, 1887; 
namibensis* Haacke, 1975) 

Christinus Wells and Wellington, 1984 (Ridegekko Wells 
and Wellington, 1985) 

guentheri Boulenger, 1885 

marmoratus Gray, 1845 (peronii Fitzinger, 1843; 
australis Gray, 1845; macrodactylus 
Boulenger, 1885; af finis Boulenger, 1885; 



biggsae Wells and Wellington, 1985; 
alexanderi* Storr, 1987) 

Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Ancylodactylus L. Miiller, 

1907; Paragonatodes Noble, 1921) 
af finis Stoliczka, 1870 (penangensis Flower, 1896) 
africana Werner, 1895 
argus Dring, 1978 
barbouri Perret, 1986 

beddomei Theobald, 1870 (marmoratus Beddome, 1870) 
boiei Gray, 184 2 
boulengerii Strauch, 1887 (glaucus M. A. Smith, 

1921) 
dickersoni K. P. Schmidt, 1919 
dilepis Perret, 1963 
elgonensis Loveridge, 1935 
lavolineata Nicholls, 1949 
gigas Perret, 1986 
goaensis Sharma, 1976 
indica Gray, 1846 
jerdonii Theobald, 1868 (scalpensis* Ferguson, 

1877) 
kandiana Kelaart, 1852 (malabaricus Jerdon, 1853; 

gracilis Beddome, 1870; wicksii Stoliczka, 

1873; humei Theobald, 1876; andersonii 

Annandale, 1904) 
kendalli Gray, 1845 
koehleri Mertens, 1937 
kumpoli Taylor, 1963 

littoralis Jerdon, 1853 (planiceps Beddome, 1871) 
mysoriensis Jerdon, 1853 
nairi Inger, Marx and Koshy, 1984 
nigridius M. A. Smith, 1925 
occidentalis Angel, 1943 
ornata Beddome, 1870 
petrodroma Perret, 1986 
podihuna Deraniyagala, 1944 
quattuorseriata Sternfeld, 1912 (bohmanni L. 

Miiller and Uthmoller, 1950) 
siamensis M. A. Smith, 1925 
sisparensis Theobald, 1876 (maculatus Beddome, 

1870; bireticulatus Annandale, 1915) 
spinicollis L. Miiller, 1907 
timoriensis Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 
tropidogaster Boulenger, 1885 
uzungwae Perret, 1986 
wynadensis Beddome, 1870 

Coleodactylus Parker, 1926 

amazonicus Andersson, 1918 (zernyi Wettstein, 

1928) 
Jbrachystoma Amaral, 1935 (pfrimeri 



Miranda-Ribeiro, 1939) 
guimaraesi Vanzolini, 1957 
meridionalis Boulenger, 1888 
septentrionalis Vanzolini, 1980 

Coleonyx Gray, 1845 (Brachydactylus W. Peters, 186 3; 

Anarbylus Murphy, 1974) 
Jbrevis Stejneger, 1893 
elegans Gray, 1845 (scapularis A. Dumeril, 1851; 

coleonyx A. Dumeril, 1856; nemoralis* 

Klauber, 1945) 
fasciatus Boulenger, 1885 

mitratus W. Peters, 1863 (dovii Boulenger, 1885) 
reticulatus Davis and Dixon, 1958 
switaki Murphy, 1974 (gypsicolus* Grismer and 

Ottley, 1988) 
variegatus Baird, 1859 (abbotti* Klauber, 1945; 

bogerti* Klauber, 1945; peninsularis* 

Klauber, 1945; slevini* Klauber, 1945; 

sonoriensis* Klauber, 194 5; utahensis* 

Klauber, 1945) 

Colopus W. Peters, 1869 

wahlbergii W. Peters, 1869 (kalaharicus 

FitzSimons, 1932; furcifer* Haacke, 1976) 

CosymJbotus Fitzinger, 1843 (Platyurus Oken, 1836; 
Nycteridium Gunther, 1864; Mimetozoon 
Boulenger, 1896) 
craspedotus Mocguard, 1890 {f lower i Boulenger, 

1896) 
platyurus Schneider, 1792 ( Schneider iana Shaw, 
1802; marginatus Cuvier, 1829; schneideri 
Gunther, 1864; himalayanum J. Anderson, 1871; 
nepalensis Annandale, 1907) 

Crenadactylus Dixon and Kluge, 1964 

ocellatus Gray, 1845 (bilineatus Gray, 1845; 

horni* Lucas and Frost, 1895; naso* Storr, 
1978; rostralis* Storr, 1978) 

Crossobamon Boettger, 1888 (Ptenodactylus Strauch, 1887) 
eversmanni Wiegmann, 1834 (atropunctatus 

Lichtenstein and von Martens, 1856; lumsdenii 
Boulenger, 1887; maynardi* M. A. Smith, 1933) 
orientalis Blanford, 1876 (dunstervillei Murray, 
1884) 

Cyrtopodion Fitzinger, 1843 (Dinosaura Gistel, 1868; 
Mesodactylus Shcherbak and Golubev, 1984) 
agamuroides Nikolsky, 1900 
elongatus Blanford, 1875 



kachhensis Stoliczka, 1872 (petrensis Murray, 

1884) 
montiumsalsorum Annandale, 1913 
scaber Heyden, 1827 (basoglui Baran and Gruber, 

1982) 
watsoni Murray, 1892 (ingoldbyi Procter, 1923) 

Delma Gray, 1831 (Nisara Gray, 1867; Pseudodelma Fischer, 1882) 
australis Kluge, 1974 
jborea Kluge, 1974 

butler i Storr, 1987 (haroldi Storr, 1987) 
elegans Kluge, 1974 
fraseri Gray, 1831 
grayii A. Smith, 1849 

impar Fischer, 1882 (lineata Rosen, 1905) 
inornata Kluge, 1974 
labialis Shea, 1987 
mitella Shea, 1987 
mo Her i Lutken, 1863 
nasuta Kluge, 1974 
pax Kluge, 1974 
plejbeia De Vis, 1888 (wollemi [n.n.] Wells and 

Wellington, 1985) 
tincta De Vis, 1888 (reticulata Garman, 1901) 
torquata Kluge, 1974 

Diplodactylus Gray, 1832 (Stenodactylopsis 

Steindachner, 1870; Lucasius Kinghorn, 1929; 
Lucasium Wermuth, 1965; Turnerdactylus Wells 
and Wellington, 1989; Ozziedactylus Wells and 
Wellington, 1989; Manwellisaurus Wells and 
Wellington, 1989) 

aljboguttatus Werner, 1910 

byrnei Lucas and Frost, 1896 (dorotheae Wells and 
Wellington, 1985) . . 

conspicillatus Lucas and Frost, 1897 (hilln 
Longman, 1915; laevis Sternfeld, 1924; 
platyurus Parker, 1926) 

damaeus Lucas and Frost, 1896 

fuller! Storr, 1978 

galeatus Kluge, 1963 ,«„„* 

granariensis Storr, 1979 (rex* Storr, 1988) 

immaculatus Storr, 1988 

/cenneallyi Storr, 1988 

maini Kluge, 1962 

mitchelli Kluge, 1963 

occultus King, Braithwaite and Wombey, 1982 

ornatus Gray, 1845 

polyophthalmus Gunther, 1867 

pulcher Steindachner, 1870 (Jbilineatus Lucas and 
Frost, 1903; dorsotaeniata Pellegrin, 1909; 
dorsalis Werner, 1910; lucasi Fry, 1914) 



savagei Kluge, 1963 

squarrosus Kluge, 1962 

steindachneri Boulenger, 1885 (stenurus Werner, 

1909; jonathoni Wells and Wellington, 1985) 
stenodactylus Boulenger, 1896 (woodwardi Fry, 

1914) 
taenicauda De Vis, 1886 (taeniocauda Boulenger, 

1887) 
tessellatus Gtinther, 1875 (pachyurus Werner, 1909) 
vittatus Gray, 1832 (furcosus W. Peters, 1864; 

jbarjbouri Ange 1 , 1936) 
wombeyi Storr, 1978 

Dravidogecko M. A. Smith, 193 3 
anamallensis Gtinther, 1875 

£jbenavia Boettger, 1878 

inunguis Boettger, 1878 (boettger i Boulenger, 
1885) 

Eublepharis Gray, 1827 

angramainyu S. Anderson and Leviton, 1966 (ensafi 
Baloutch and Thireau, 1986) 

hardwickii Gray, 1827 (lunatus Blyth, 1847) 

macularius Blyth, 1854 (fasciolatus* Gtinther, 
1864; afghanicus* Borner, 1974; gracilis 
Borner, 1974; montanus* Borner, 1976; fuscus* 
Borner, 1981; smithi* Borner, 1981) 

turcmenicus Darevsky, 1978 

Eurydacty lodes Wermuth, 1965 (Eurydactylus Sauvage, 1878) 
symmetricus Andersson, 1908 
vieillardi Bavay, 1869 

Geckoella Gray, 1867 

collegalensis Beddome, 1870 (speciosus Beddome, 

1870) 
deccanensis Gtinther, 1864 (albofasciatus 

Boulenger, 1885; dekkanensis M. A. Smith, 

1935) 
jeyporensis Beddome, 1877 
madarensis Sharma, 1980 
nebulosus Beddome, 1870 

triedrus Gtinther, 1864 (punctata Gray, 1867) 
yakhuna Deraniyagala, 1945 (zonatus Deraniyagala, 

1945) 

Geckolepis Grandidier, 1867 
anomala Mocguard, 1902 

maculata W. Peters, 1880 (humbloti Vaillant, 1887) 
modesta Methuen and Hewitt, 1913 
petiti Angel, 1942 



polylepis Boettger, 1893 
typica Grandidier, 1867 

Geckonia Mocquard, 1895 

chazaliae Mocquard, 1895 (malazodes Ahl, 1930) 

Gehyra Gray, 1834 (Peropus Wiegmann, 1835; Phyria Gray, 

1842; Dactyloperus Fitzinger, 1843; 

Perodactylus Fitzinger, 1843; Peripia Gray, 

1845; Chalinocnemis Duges, 1883; Spasmocnemis 

Duges, 1883; Phyriadora Wells and Wellington, 

1985) 
angusticaudata Taylor, 1963 

australis Gray, 1845 (punctulata Gray, 1842) 
baliola A. Dumeril, 1851 (marmorata Macleay, 1877; 

jbrevicaudis Macleay, 1877) 
jbarea Kopstein, 1926 
borroloola King, 1983 
jbrevipal;nata W. Peters, 1874 
butleri Boulenger, 1900 
catenata Low, 1979 
dubia Macleay, 1877 (longicaudis Macleay, 1877; 

torresiana Giinther, 1877) 
fehlmanni Taylor, 1962 
intermedia Brown, 1902 
interstitialis Oudemans, 1894 
kimberleyi Borner and Schuttler, 1983 
lacerata Taylor, 1962 
lampei Andersson, 1913 
leopoldi Brongersma, 1930 
marginata Boulenger, 1887 (fischeri Strauch, 1887; 

marginata Boettger, 1895) 
membranacruralis King and Horner, 1989 
minuta King, 1982 
montium Storr, 1982 
mutilata Wiegmann, 1835 (peronii Duraeril and 

Bibron, 1836; platurus Bleeker, 1858; 

insulensis Girard, 1858; pardus Tytler, 1865; 

perdicolor Cope, 1868; packardii Cope, 1869; 

navarri Duges, 1883; jbeejbei Annandale, 1913) 
nana Storr, 1978 
occidentalis King, 1984 
oceanica Lesson, 1830 (pacifica Gray, 1834; 

oualensis Dumeril and Bibron, 1836; gularis 

Gray, 1842) 
pamela King, 1982 
papuana Meyer, 1874 
pilbara Mitchell, 1965 {cognata Borner and 

Schuttler, 1982) 
punctata Fry, 1914 (fenestra Mitchell, 1965) 
purpurascens Storr, 1982 
robusta King, 1983 



10 

variegata Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 {grayi 

Steindachner, 1867; pusillus [?] Cope, 1868; 
mestoni de Vis, 1890; annetteae Wells and 
Wellington, 1985; kingi Wells and Wellington, 
1985; lazelli Wells and Wellington, 1985) 

vorax Girard, 1858 

xenopus Storr, 1978 

Gekko Laurenti, 1768 (Gecko Brongniart, 1800; Gecus 
Rafinesgue, 1810; Platydactylus Goldfuss, 
1820; Gecco Ritgen, 1828; Lomatodactylus van 
der Hoeven, 1833; Scelotretus Fitzinger, 
1843) 

athymus Brown and Alcala, 1962 

auri verrucosus Zhou and Liu, 1982 

chinensis Gray, 1842 (similignum M. A. Smith, 
1923) 

gecko Linnaeus, 1758 (verticillatus Laurenti, 

1768; teres Laurenti, 1768; guttatus Daudin, 
1802; verus Merrem, 1820; annulatus Kuhl, 
1820; reevesii Gray, 1831; tenuis Hallowell, 
1857; indicus Girard, 1858; azhari* Mertens , 
1955) 

gigante Brown and Alcala, 1978 

hokouensis Pope, 1928 (amissus Taylor, 1962) 

japonicus Schlegel (in Dumeril and Bibron), 1836 
(jamori Temminck and Schlegel, 1838; nanus 
Cantor, 1842; yamori Fritze, 1891) 

kikuchii Oshima, 1912 

liboensis Zhou and Li, 1982 

mindorensis Taylor, 1919 

palawanensis Taylor, 1925 

palmatus Boulenger, 1907 

petricolus Taylor, 1962 

porosus Taylor, 1922 

romblon Brown and Alcala, 1978 

scabridus Liu and Zhou, 1982 

smithii Gray, 1842 (stentor Cantor, 1847; 

albomaculatus Giebel, 1861; albofasciolatus 
Giinther, 1867) 

subpalmatus Giinther, 1864 (melli Vogt, 1922) 

swinhonis Giinther, 1864 

taibaiensis Mingtao, 1985 

tawaensis Okada, 1956 

tuberculatus Daudin, 1802 (monarchus Schlegel, in 
Dumeril and Bibron, 1836; burmeisteri Giebel, 
1861; deissneri Giebel, 1861) 

verreauxii Tytler, 1865 

vittatus Houttuyn, 1782 (unistriata Shaw, 1792; 
bivittatus Dumeril and Bibron, 18 36; 
trachyloemus W. Peters, 1872) 

yakuensis Matsui and Okada, 1968 



11 



Gonatodes Fitzinger, 1843 

albogularis Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 (fuscus* 

Hallowell, 1855; varius A. Dumeril, 1856; 

notatus* Reinhardt and Liitken, 1862; 

maculatus Steindachner , 1867; braconnieri 

O'Shaughnessy, 1875; bodinii* Rivero Blanco, 

1964) 
annularis Boulenger, 1887 (boonii Lidth de Jeude, 

1904; beebei Noble, 1923) 
antillensis Lidth de Jeude, 1887 
atricucullaris Noble, 1921 
caudiscutatus Giinther, 1859 {collar is Garman, 

1892) 
ceciliae Donoso-Barros, 1965 
concinnatus O'Shaughnessy , 1881 (buckleyi 

O'Shaughnessy, 1881; ligiae Donoso-Barros, 

1967) 
eladioi Nascimento, Avila-Pires and Cunha, 1987 
falconensis Shreve, 1947 

hasemani Griff en, 1917 (spinulosus Amaral, 1932) 
humeralis Guichenot, 1855 (ferriugineus 24Cope, 

1864; incertus W. Peters, 1871; sulcatus 

O'Shaughnessy, 1875) 
ocellatus Gray, 1831 (confidentalis Marcuzzi, 

1950) 
petersi Donoso-Barros, 1967 
seigliei Donoso-Barros, 1965 
taniae Roze, 1963 
tapajonicus Rodrigues, 1980 
vittatus Wiegmann, 1856 (gilli Cope, 1864; 

roquensis* Roze, 1956) 

Goniurosaurus Barbour, 1908 (Amamisaurus Borner, 1981) 
kuroiwae Namiye, 1912 (orientalis* Maki, 1931; 

yamashinae Okada, 1936; splendens* Nakamura 

and Ueno, 1959) 
lichtenfelderi Mocguard, 1897 (hainanensis* 

Barbour, 1908) 

Gonydactylus Kuhl and van Hasselt, 1822 (Goniodactylus 
Schlegel, 1826; Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827; 
Gonyodactylus Wagler, 1830; Goniodactylus 
Gray, 1842; Gonyodactylus Fitzinger, 1843; 
Puellula Blyth, 1860; Quantasia Wells and 
Wellington, 1985) 

agusanensis Taylor, 1915 

angularis M. A. Smith, 1921 

annulatus Taylor, 1915 

baluensis Mocguard, 1890 

biordinis Brown and McCoy, 1980 

jbrevipalmatus M. A. Smith, 1923 



12 

cavernicolus Inger and King, 1961 (kinabalensis 

Malkmus, 1989) 
chitralensis M. A. Smith, 1935 
condorensis M. A. Smith, 1921 
consobrinoides Annandale, 1905 
consobrinus W. Peters, 1871 

darmandvillei Weber, 1890 (defossei Dunn, 1927) 
dattanensis Khan, 1980 
derongo Brown and Parker, 1973 
deveti Brongersma, 1948 
elok Dring, 1978 
fasciolatus Blyth, 1860 
feae Boulenger, 1893 
fraenatus Giinther, 1864 
fumosus F. Mviller, 1895 (halmahericus* Mertens, 

1929) 
guJbernatoris Annandale, 1913 
himalayansis Duda and Sahi , 1978 
indusoani Khan, 1988 
ingeri Hikida, 1990 
intermedius M. A. Smith, 1917 
irregularis M. A. Smith, 1921 
jellesmae Boulenger, 1897 
khasiensis Jerdon, 1870 (himalayicus Annandale, 

1906; tamaiensis* M. A. Smith, 1940) 
kirmanensis Nikolsky, 1900 
iaevigatus Darevsky, 1964 (uniformis* Auffenberg, 

1980) 
lateralis Werner, 1896 
lawderanus Stoliczka, 1871 (himalayensis 

Annandale, 1913) 
loriae Boulenger, 1897 
louisiadensis de Vis, 1892 (tuberculatus Lucas and 

Frost, 1900; olivii Garman, 1901) 
malcolmsmithi Constable, 1949 
malayanus de Rooij, 1915 
mansarulus Duda and Sahi, 1978 

marmoratus Gray, 1831 (agamensis Bleeker, 1860) 
matsuii Hikida, 1990 
mimikanus Boulenger, 1914 
mintoni Golubev and Shcherbak, 1981 
novaeguineae Schlegel, 1844 
oldhami Theobald, 1876 
papuensis Brongersma, 1928 (novaeguineae 

Brongersma, 1928) 
peguensis Boulenger, 1893 (zeJbraicus* Taylor, 

1962) 
philippinicus Steindachner, 1867 
pubisulcus Inger, 1957 
pulchella Gray, 1827 
quadrivirgatus Taylor, 1962 
rohtasfortai Khan and Tasnim, 1990 



13 

redimiculus King, 1962 

rubidus Blyth, 1860 (tigris Tytler, 1864) 

sadleiri Wells and Wellington, 1985 

sermowaiensis de Rooij, 1915 

stoliczkai Steindachner , 1867 (yarkandensis J. 

Anderson, 1872; walli Ingoldby, 1922) 
sworderi M. A. Smith, 1925 
tibetinus Boulenger, 1905 
variegatus Blyth, 1859 
wetariensis Dunn, 1927 
yoshii Hikida, 1990 

Gymnodactylus Spix, 1825 (Dasyderma Fitzinger, 1843) 
geckoides Spix, 1825 (spixii Gray, 1831; 

gymnodactylus Schinz, 1833; spinulosus 
Fitzinger, 1843; darwinii* Gray, 1845; 
girardi Steindachner, 1867; amarali* Barbour, 
1925; conspicuus Amaral, 1932; helgae Amaral, 
1950) 
guttulatus Vanzolini, 1982 

Hemidactylus Gray, 1825 (Gecus Rafinesgue, 1810; 

Hemidact Oken, 1817; Boltalia Gray, 1842; 

Hoplopodion Fitzinger, 1843; Microdactylus 

Fitzinger, 1843; Onychopus Fitzinger, 1843; 

Tachybates Fitzinger, 1843; Pnoepus 

Fitzinger, 1843; Doryura Gray, 1845; 

Velernesia Gray, 1845; Leiurus Gray, 1845; 

Nubilia Gray, 1845; Eurhous Fitzinger, 1861; 

Liurus Cope, 1862; Emydactylus Bocourt, 1870; 

Bunocnemis Gvinther, 1894; Lophopholis M. A. 

Smith and Deraniyagala, 1934; Aliurus Dunn 

and Dunn, 1940) 
agrius Vanzolini, 1978 
albopunctatus Loveridge, 1942 
aporus Boulenger, 1906 
arnoldi Lanza, 1978 
jbarodanus Boulenger, 1901 
bavazzanoi Lanza, 1978 
bayonii Barboza du Bocage, 1893 
Jbouvieri Bocourt, 1870 (cessacii Barboza du 

Bocage, 1873; boavistensis* Boulenger, 1906; 

chevalieri Angel, 1935; razoensis* Gruber and 

Schleich, 1982) 
bowringii Gray, 1845 (Jberdjnorei Blyth, 1853) 
brookii Gray, 1845 (angulatus* Hallowell, 1854; 

tytleri Tytler, 1865; guineensis W. Peters, 

1868; at finis Steindachner, 1870; 

kushmorensis Murray, 1884; gleadowi Murray, 

1884; stellatus Boulenger, 1885; murrayi 

Gleadow, 1887; tenkatei Lidth de Jeude, 1895; 

togoensis Werner, 1897; haitianus* Meerwarth, 



14 

1901; subtriedroides* Annandale, 1905; 

leightoni* Boulenger, 1911; luzonensis 

Taylor, 1915; neotropicalis Shreve, 1936; 

parvimaculatus* Deraniyagala, 1953) 
citernii Boulenger, 1912 
curlei Parker, 1942 
depressus Gray, 1842 ( argent ii Gray, 1845; 

pieresii Kelaart, 1853) 
echinus O'Shaughnessy , 1875 
fasciatus Gray, 1842 (ornatus Gray, 1845; formosus 

Hallowell, 1857; ituriensis* K. P. Schmidt, 

1919) 
flaviviridis Riippell, 1835 (coctaei Dumeril and 

Bibron, 1836; sublevis Gray, 1842; cocteaui 

Fitzinger, 1843; ruppelli Fitzinger, 1843; 

bengaliensis J. Anderson, 1871; sublaevis 

Boulenger, 1885; bengalensis Boulenger, 1885; 

zolii Scortecci , 1929) 
forbesii Boulenger, 1899 
frenatus Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 (bojeri 

Fitzinger, 1843; javanicus Fitzinger, 1843; 

vittatus Gray, 1845; punctatus Jerdon, 1853; 

inornatus Hallowell, 1861; pumilus Hallowell, 

1861; caracal Tytler, 1865; chaus Tytler, 

1865; hexaspis Cope, 1869; longiceps Cope, 

1869; papuensis Macleay, 1877; tristis 

Sauvage, 1878; fragilis Calabresi, 1915; 

vandermeermohri Brongersma, 1928; okinawensis 

Okada, 1936) 
funaiolii Lanza, 1978 
gar not ii Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 (peruvianus 

Wiegmann, 1835; vulpecula Girard, 1858; 

ludekingii Bleeker, 1858; guadama Theobald, 

1868; mortoni Theobald, 1868; mandelianus 

Stoliczka, 1871; blanfordii Boulenger, 1885) 
giganteus Stoliczka, 1871 
gracilis Blanford, 1870 (platyceps Annandale, 

1912) 
granchii Lanza, 1978 
granti Boulenger, 1899 
greefi Barboza du Bocage, 1886 
homoeolepis Blanford, 1881 
intestinalis Werner, 1897 [ansorgii Boulenger, 

1901) 
isolepis Boulenger, 1895 
jubensis Boulenger, 1895 
karenorum Theobald, 1868 
klauberi Scortecci, 1948 
laevis Boulenger, 1901 
laticaudatus Andersson, 1910 (fossatii* Scortecci, 

1928) 
lemurinus Arnold, 1980 



15 

leschenaultii Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 (bellii 

Gray, 1845; pustulosus Lichtenstein and von 
Martens, 1856; kelaarti Theobald, 1868; 
marmoratus Blanford, 1870) 

longicephalus Barboza du Bocage, 1873 (longiceps 

O'Shaughnessy, 1873; bocagii Boulenger, 1885; 
molleri Bedriaga, 1892; hecqui Boulenger, 
1901; steindachneri Tornier, 1902) 

mabouia Moreau de Jonnes , 1818 (tuberculosus 

Raddi, 1823; incanescens Wied-Neuwied, 1824; 
armatus Wied-Neuwied, 1824; aculeatus Spix, 
1825; cruciger Spix, 1825; majbuia Cuvier, 
1829; majbuya Fitzinger, 1843; calabaricus 
Boettger, 1878; benguellensis Barboza du 
Bocage, 1893) 

macropholis Boulenger, 1896 

maculatus Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 (sykesii 

Giinther, 1864; hunae* Deraniyagala, 1937) 

marmoratus Hallowell, 1861 

matschiei Toriner, 1901 

megalops Parker, 1932 

mercatorius Gray, 1842 (gardineri Boulenger, 1909; 
persimilis Barbour, 1928; mandanus Loveridge, 
1936) 

modestus Giinther, 1894 

muriceus W. Peters, 1870 

newtoni Ferreira, 1897 

nigriventris Lidth de Jeude, 1905 

ophiolepis Boulenger, 1903 

ophiolepoides Lanza, 1978 

oxyrhinus Boulenger, 1899 

palaichthus Kluge, 1969 

persicus J. Anderson, 1872 (jbornmuelleri Werner, 
1895) 

platycephalus W. Peters, 1854 

prashadi M. A. Smith, 1935 

puccionii Calabresi, 1927 

pumilio Boulenger, 1899 (pumilus Boulenger, 1899) 

reticulatus Beddome, 1870 

richardsonii Gray, 1845 

ruspolii Boulenger, 1896 (erlangeri Steindachner , 
1907) 

scabriceps Annandale, 1906 

sinaitus Boulenger, 1885 (shugraensis Haas and 
Battersby, 1959) 

smithi Boulenger, 1895 

somalicus Parker, 1932 

squamulatus Tornier, 1896 (bocagei Toriner, 1896; 
werner i Tornier, 1897; tornier i Mocguard, 
1902; floweri* Werner, 1908; alluandi Angel, 
1923; jbarfcouri* Loveridge, 1942) 

stejnegeri Ota and Hikida, 1989 



16 

subtriedrus Jerdon, 1853 

tanganicus Loveridge, 1929 

tasmani Hewitt, 1932 

taylori Parker, 193 2 

triedrus Daudin, 1802 (lankae* Deraniyagala, 1953) 

tropidolepis Mocquard, 1888 

turcicus Linnaeus, 1758 (cyanodactylus Rafinesque, 
1810; meridionalis Risso, 1826; granosus 
Heyden, 1827; robustus Heyden, 1827; 
veruculatus Cuvier, 1829; verrucosus Gray, 
1831; karachiensis Murray, 1884; exsul 
Barbour and Cole, 1906; parkeri* Loveridge, 
1936; spinalis* Buchholz, 1954) 

vietnamensis Darevsky and Kupriyanova, 1984 

yerburii J. Anderson, 1895 (pauciporosus* Lanza, 
1978) 

Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker, 1860 (Spathodactylus 

Gvinther, 1872; Spathoscalabotes Boulenger, 
1885; Cainodactylus Barbour, 1924) 

harterti Werner, 1900 (larutensis Boulenger, 1900) 

insularis Taylor, 1918 

typus Bleeker, 1860 (gracilis Bleeker, 1860; 
crepuscularis Bavay, 1869; aurantiacus* 
Beddome, 1870; mutilatus Gvinther, 1872; 
ceylonensis Boulenger, 1885; leucostictus 
Stejneger, 1899; margarethae Brongersma, 
1931; chapaensis* Bourret, 1937; pallidus* 
Auffenberg, 1980) 

yunnanensis Boulenger, 1903 (dushanensis* Zhou and 
Liu, 1981; jinpingensis* Zhou and Liu, 1981; 
longlingensis* Zhou and Liu, 1981) 

Hemitheconyx Stejneger, 1893 (Psilodactylus Gray, 1864) 
caudicinctus A. Dumeril, 1851 
taylori Parker, 1930 

Heteronotia Wermuth, 1965 (Heteronota Gray, 1845) 

binoei Gray, 1845 (derbianus Gray, 1845; australis 

Steindachner, 1867; anomalus W. Peters, 1868; 

annulatus Macleay, 1877; horneri Wells and 

Wellington, 1985; wadei Wells and Wellington, 

1985) 
planiceps Storr, 1989 
spelea Kluge, 1963 

Holodactylus Boettger, 1893 

africanus Boettger, 1893 (aculeatus Calabresi, 

1915) 
cornii Scortecci, 1931 



17 



Homonota Gray, 1845 (Cubina Gray, 1845; Cubinia Gray, 
1845; Wallsaurus Underwood, 1954; Garthia 
Donoso-Barros and Vanzolini, 1965; Garthia 
Vanzolini and Donoso-Barros, 1966) 

andicola Cei, 1978 

borellii Peracca, 1897 

darwinii Boulenger, 1885 (macrocephala* Cei, 1978) 

fasciatus Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 (pasteuri 
Wermuth, 1965) 

gaudichaudii Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 (dorbignii* 
Dumeril and Bibron, 1836; klugei* 
Donoso-Barros, 1970) 

horrida Burmeister, 1861 (mattogrossensis Berg, 
1895) 

penai Donoso-Barros, 1965 

underwoodi Kluge, 1964 

uruguayensis Vaz-Ferreira and Soriano, 1961 

whitii Boulenger, 1885 

Homopholis Boulenger, 1885 (Platypholis Boulenger, 

1890; Blaesodactylus Boettger, 1893) 
antongilensis Bohme and Meier, 1980 
jboivini A. Dumeril, 1856 
fasciata Boulenger, 1890 (erlangeri* Steindachner , 

1906) 
mulleri Visser, 1987 
sakalava Grandidier, 1867 (heterolepis Boulenger, 

1896) 
walbergii A. Smith, 1849 (macrolepis Boulenger, 

1885; arnoldi Loveridge, 1944) 

Hoplodactylus Fitzinger, 1843 (Pentadactylus Gray, 

1845; Dactylocnemis Steindachner, 1867; 

Woodworthia Garman, 1901) 
chrysosireticus Robb, 1980 
delcourti Bauer and Russell, 1986 
duvaucelii Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 
granulatus Gray, 1845 (brevidactylus Gray, 1845; 

greyii Knox, 1870; sylvestris Buller, 1881; 

versicolor Colenso, 1885; nebulosus McCann, 

1955) 
kahutarae Whitaker, 1985 
maculatus Boulenger, 1885 
pacificus Gray, 1842 (pomarii Girard, 1858; 

wullerstorfi Fitzinger, 1861; Jbrunneus Cope, 

1868; digitatus Garman, 1901) 
rakiurae Thomas, 1981 
stephensi Robb, 1980 



Kaokogecko Steyn and Haacke, 1966 

vanzyli Steyn and Haacke, 1966 



18 



Lepidoblepharis Peracca, 1897 (Lathrogecko Ruthven, 1916) 
buchwaldi Werner, 1910 
colombianus Mechler, 1968 
duolepis Ayala and Castro, 1983 
festae Peracca, 1897 
grandis Miyata, 1985 
heyerorum Vanzolini, 1978 
intermedins Boulenger, 1914 
miyata Lamar, 1985 
microlepis Noble, 1923 
oxycephalus Werner, 1894 
peraccae Boulenger, 1908 
ruthveni Parker, 1926 

sanctaemartae Ruthven, 1916 (fugax Ruthven, 1928) 
williamsi Ayala and Serna, 1986 
xanthostigma Noble, 1916 

Lepidodactylus Fitzinger, 1843 (Amydosaurus Gray, 1845) 

aureolineatus Taylor, 1915 

balioburius Ota and Crombie, 1989 

browni Pernetta and Black, 1983 

christiani Taylor, 1917 

euaensis Gibbons and Brown, 1988 

gardineri Boulenger, 1897 

guppyi Boulenger, 1884 

herrei Taylor, 1923 (medianus* Brown and Alcala, 
1978) 

listeri Boulenger, 1889 

lugubris Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 (neglectus 

Girard, 1858; meijeri Bleeker, 1859; pomareae 
Fitzinger, 1861; cantoris Giinther, 1864; 
harrieti Tytler, 1865; moestus W. Peters, 
1867; roseus Cope, 1869; caudeloti Bavay, 
1869; mysorensis Meyer, 1874; ornata Macleay, 
1877; diver gens Taylor, 1918; lombocensis 
Mertens, 1929; ogasawarasimae Okada, 1930; 
intermedius* Darevsky, 1964) 

magnus Brown and Parker, 1977 

manni K. P. Schmidt, 1923 

mutahi Brown and Parker, 1977 

novaeguineae Brown and Parker, 1977 

oorti Kopstein, 1926 

orientalis Brown and Parker, 1977 

planicaudus Stejneger, 1905 (naujanensis Taylor, 
1919) 

pulcher Boulenger, 1885 

pumilus Boulenger, 1885 

pusillus [?] Cope, 1868 

ranauensis Ota and Hikida, 1988 

shebae Brown and Tanner, 1949 

woodfordi Boulenger, 1887 



19 



yami Ota, 1987 



Lialis Gray, 1835 (Ophiophthalmus Fitzinger, 1843; 
Alopecosaurus Lindholm, 1905) 
burtonis Gray, 1835 (bicatenata Gray, 1842; 
punctulata Gray, 1842; leptorhyncha W. 
Peters, 1874; concolor W. Peters, 1874) 
jicari Boulenger, 1903 (cuneirostris Lindholm, 
1905; inornata Lindholm, 1905) 

Luperosaurus Gray, 1845 

brooks ii Boulenger, 1920 
browni Russell, 1979 
cumingii Gray, 1845 
joloensis Taylor, 1918 
macgregori Stejneger, 1907 
palawanensis Brown and Alcala, 1974 

Lygodactylus Gray, 1864 (Scalabotes W. Peters, 1880; 

Vanzoia H. M. Smith, Martin and Swain, 1977) 
angolensis Barboza du Bocage, 1896 [1897] (laurae 

K. P. Schmidt, 1933) 
angular is Gunther, 1893 (heeneni* DeWitte, 1933; 

grzimeki* Bannikov and Darevsky, 1969) 
arnoulti Pasteur, 1964 

bernardi FitzSimons, 1958 (bonsi* Pasteur, 1962) 
blanci Pasteur, 1967 
bradfieldi Hewitt, 1932 
capensis A. Smith, 1849 (strigatus Gray, 1864; 

grotei* Sternfeld, 1911; ngamiensis 

FitzSimons, 1932; pakenhami* Lover idge, 1941) 
chobiensis FitzSimons, 1932 
conradti Matschie, 1892 
conraui Tornier, 1902 {strongi Barbour and 

Loveridge, 1927) 
decaryi Angel, 1930 
depressus K. P. Schmidt, 1919 
expectatus Pasteur and Blanc, 1967 
fischeri Boulenger, 1890 
grandisonae Pasteur, 1962 
gravis Pasteur, 1964 
guibei Pasteur, 1964 
gutturalis Barboza du Bocage, 1873 (paurospilus* 

Laurent, 1952; dysmicus* Perret, 1963) 
heterurus Boettger, 1913 
inexpectatus Pasteur, 1964 
insularis Boettger, 1913 
keniensis Parker, 1936 
klemmeri Pasteur, 1964 

klugei H. M. Smith, Martin and Swain, 1977 
lawrencei Hewitt, 1926 
luteopicturatus Pasteur, 1964 (zanzibaritis* 



20 

Pasteur, 1964) 
madagascariensis Boettger, 1881 (pictus W. Peters, 

1883; petteri* Pasteur and Blanc, 1967) 
manni Loveridge, 1928 
methueni FitzSimons, 1937 

miops Giinther, 1891 (spinulifer Boettger, 1913) 
montanus Pasteur, 1964 
ocellatus Roux, 1907 
ornatus Pasteur, 1964 
picturatus W. Peters, 1868 (variegatus W. Peters, 

1868; griseus Toriner, 1896; septemlineatus 

Toriner, 1896; quinquelineatus Tornier, 1896; 

mombasicus* Loveridge, 1935; sudanensis* 

Loveridge, 1935; ukerewensis Loveridge, 1935) 
pictus W. Peters, 1883 (robustus Boettger, 1913) 
rarus Pasteur and Blanc, 1973 
rex Broadly, 1963 
schef fieri Sternfeld, 1912 ( later imaculatus* 

Pasteur, 1964; compositus* Pasteur, 1964; 

ulugurensis* Pasteur, 1964) 
scorteccii Pasteur, 1959 
septemtuberculatus Angel, 1942 
somalicus Loveridge, 1931 (fisheri Scortecci , 

1931; annectans Loveridge, 1935; battersbyi* 

Pasteur, 1962; howelli* Pasteur and Broadly, 

1988) 
stevensoni Hewitt, 1926 
thomensis W. Peters, 1880 (rolasi Greef, 1885; 

delicatus* Pasteur, 1962; wermuthi* Pasteur, 

1962) 
tolampyae Grandidier, 1872 (tuberifer Boettger, 

1913) 
tuberosus Mertens, 1965 
verticillatus Mocguard, 1895 
wetzeli H. M. Smith, Martin and Swain, 1977 
williamsi Loveridge, 1952 

Mediodactylus Shcherbak and Golubev, 1977 

amictopholis Hoofien, 1967 

jbrevipes Blanford, 1874 

heterocercus Blanford, 1874 (mardinensis* Mertens, 
1924) 

kotschyi Steindachner , 1870 (cyprius Fitzinger, 
184 3; concolor* Bedriaga, 1882; maculatus* 
Bedriaga, 1882; danilewskii* Strauch, 1887; 
oertzeni* Boettger, 1888; colchicus* 
Nikolsky, 1902; bartoni* Stepanek, 1934; 
fitzingeri* Stepanek, 1937; orientalis* 
Stepanek, 1937; solerii* Wettstein, 1937; 
steindachneri* Stepanek, 1937; stepaneki* 
Wettstein, 1937; syriacus* Stepanek, 1937; 
unicolor Wettstein, 1937; wettsteini* 



21 

Stepanek, 1937; bureschi Stepanek, 1937; 
rumelicus* L. Miiller, 1939; saronicus* 
Werner, 1939; kalypsae* Stepanek, 1939; 
lycaonicus* Mertens , 1952; rarus Wettstein, 
1952; stubbei Wettstein, 1952; christianae 
Buchholz, 1955; skopjensis* Karaman, 1965; 
buchholzi* Beutler and Gruber, 1977; 
schultzewestrumi* Beutler and Gruber, 1977; 
gruberi Beutler and Gruber, 1977; fuchsi* 
Beutler and Gruber, 1977; bibroni* Beutler 
and Gruber, 1977; adelphiensis* Beutler and 
Gruber, 1978; bileki Tiedemann and Haupl , 
1980; tinensis* Beutler and Fror , 1980; 
beutleri* Baran and Gruber, 1981; karabagi* 
Baran and Gruber, 1982; ciliciensis* Baran 
and Gruber, 1982; ponticus* Baran and Gruber, 
1982) 

russowii Strauch, 1887 (zarudnyi* Nikolsky, 1899; 
copalensis Schnitnikow, 1928) 

sagittifer Nikolsky, 1899 

spinicauda Nikolsky, 1887 

Microgecko Nikolsky, 1907 

helenae Nikolsky, 1907 (fasciatus* Schmidtler and 

Schmidtler, 1972) 
latifi Leviton and S. Anderson, 1972 
persicus Nikolsky, 1903 (bakhtiari* Minton, S. 

Anderson, J. A. Anderson, 1970; 

euphorbiacola* Minton, S. Anderson, and J. A. 

Anderson, 1970) 

Microscalabotes Boulenger, 1883 

bivittis W. Peters, 1883 (hildebrandti W. Peters, 
1883; cowanii Boulenger, 1883) 

Millotisaurus Pasteur, 1962 
mirabilis Pasteur, 1962 

Nactus Kluge, 1983 (Mascarenogecko Ulber and Gericke, 1988) 

pelagicus Girard, 1858 (arnouxii A. Dumeril, 1851; 
multicarinatus Gunther, 1872; arfakianus 
Meyer, 1874; fasciata Macleay, 1877; 
marmorata Macleay, 1877; ejboracensis Macleay, 
1877; cheverti Boulenger, 1885; heteronotus 
Boulenger, 1885; undulatus* Kopstein, 1926) 

coindermirensis Bullock, Arnold and Bloxan, 1985 

galgajuga Ingram, 1978 

serpensinsula Loveridge, 1951 

vankampeni Brongersma, 19 3 3 

Narudasia Methuen and Hewitt, 1914 

f estiva Methuen and Hewitt, 1914 



22 



Naultinus Gray, 1842 (Heteropholis Fischer, 1882; 

Naultinulus Chrapliwy, H. M. Smith, and 

Grant, 1961) 
elegans Gray, 1842 (punctatus* Gray, 1843; 

lineatus Gray, 1869; sulphurus Buller, 1871; 

pentagonalis Colenso, 1880; ocellatus McCann, 

1955) 
gemmeus McCann, 1955 

grayii Bell, 1843 (simpsoni Robb, 1980) 
manukanus McCann, 1955 
poecilochlorus Robb, 1980 
rudis Fischer, 1881 [1882] 

stellatus Hutton, 1872 (pulcherrimus Buller, 1877) 
tuberculatus McCann, 1955 

Nephrurus Giinther 1876 (t/nderwoodisaurus Wermuth, 1965) 
as per Giinther, 1876 
deleani Harvey, 1983 
laevissimus Mertens, 1958 
laevis De Vis, 1886 (platyurus Boulenger, 1886; 

occidentalis* Storr, 1963; pilbarensis* 

Storr, 1963) 
milii Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1825 (miliusii 

Dumeril and Bibron, 1836; jblavieri de 

Rochebrune, 1884; asper Boulenger, 1913; 

husbandi Wells and Wellington, 1984) 
sphyrurus Ogilby, 1892 (walshi Kinghorn, 1931) 
stellatus Storr, 1968 
vertebralis Storr, 1963 
wheeleri Loveridge, 1932 (cinctus* Storr, 1963) 

Oedura Gray, 1842 (Pachyurus Fitzinger, 1843; Amalosia 
Wells and Wellington, 1984) 

castelnaui Thominot, 1889 (mayeri Garman, 1901) 

cogger i Bustard, 1966 

filicipoda King, 1984 

gemmata King and Gow, 1983 

gracilis King, 1984 

lesueurii Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 (phillipsi 
Wells and Wellington, 1985) 

marmorata Gray, 1842 (fracticolor De Vis, 1884; 

cincta De Vis, 1888; attenboroughi Wells and 
Wellington, 1985; derelicta Wells and 
Wellington, 1985; greeri [n.n. ] Wells and 
Wellington, 1985) 

monilis De Vis, 1888 

obscura King, 1984 

reticulata Bustard, 1969 

rhombifer Gray, 1845 

robusta Boulenger, 1885 

tryoni De Vis, 1884 {ocellata Boulenger, 1885) 



23 

verrilli [?] Cope, 1868 

Ophidiocephalus Lucas and Frost, 1897 
taeniatus Lucas and Frost, 1897 

Pachydactylus Wiegmann, 1834 (Colobopus Fitzinger, 

1843; Cantinia Gray, 1845; Homodactylus Gray, 

1864; Elasmodactylus Boulenger, 1894) 
amoenus Werner, 1910 
austeni Hewitt, 1923 
bibronii A. Smith, 1845 [1846] (turner i Gray, 

1864; stellatus Werner, 1910; pulitzerae* K. 

P. Schmidt, 1933) 
bicolor Hewitt, 1926 
capensis A. Smith, 1846 (elegans Gray, 1845; 

mentomarg inatus A. Smith, 1849; 

oshaughnessyi* Boulenger, 1885; obscurus 

Thominot, 1889; af finis* Boulenger, 1896; 

tessellatus Werner, 1910; leopardinus 

Sternfeld, 1911; levyi FitzSimons, 1933; 

vansoni* FitzSimons, 1933; katanganus* 

DeWitte, 1953) 
caraculicus FitzSimons, 1959 
fasciatus Boulenger, 1888 
formosus [?] A. Smith, 1849 
gaiasensis Steyn and Mitchell, 1967 
geitje Sparrman, 1778 (ocellatus Cuvier, 1817; 

inunguis Cuvier, 1817; bergii Wiegmann, 1834) 
kobosensis FitzSimons, 1938 
kochii FitzSimons, 1959 
labialis FitzSimons, 1938 
laevigatus Fischer, 1888 (tessellatus FitzSimons, 

1938; fitzsimonsi* Loveridge, 1947) 
maculatus Gray, 1845 (albomarg inatus Hewitt, 1932; 

microlepis Hewitt, 1935) 
mariquensis A. Smith, 1849 (latirostris* Hewitt, 

1923; macrolepis FitzSimons, 1939) 
mentalis Hewitt, 1926 
monticolus [?] FitzSimons, 1943 
namaquensis Sclater, 1898 
oculatus Hewitt, 1927 

oreophilus McLachlan and Spence, 1967 
punctatus W. Peters, 1854 (brunnthaleri Werner, 

1913; langi FitzSimons, 1932; amoenoides* 

Hewitt, 1935; scherzi* Mertens, 1954) 
rugosus A. Smith, 1849 (frater Hewitt, 1935; 

jbarnardi* FitzSimons, 1941) 
sansteyni Steyn and Mitchell, 1967 
scutatus Hewitt, 1927 (rojbertsi* FitzSimons, 1938; 

angolensis* Loveridge, 1944) 
serval Werner, 1910 (purcelli* Boulenger, 1910; 

pardus Sternfeld, 1911; montanus Methuen and 



24 

Hewitt, 1914; onscepensis* Hewitt, 1935) 
tetensis Loveridge, 1953 
tigrinus Van Dam, 1921 (rhodesianus Loveridge, 

1947) 
tsodiloensis Haacke, 1966 
tuberculosus Boulenger, 1894 (triedrus Boulenger, 

1913; boulengeri Toriner, 1896) 
weberi Roux, 1907 (gariesensis Hewitt, 1932; 

werneri* Hewitt, 1935; acuminatus* 

FitzSimons, 1941) 

Palmatogecko Andersson, 1908 (Syndactylosaura Werner, 1910) 
rangei Andersson, 1908 (schultzei Werner, 1910) 

Paradelma Kinghorn, 1926 

orientalis Giinther, 1876 

Paragehyra Angel, 1929 
petiti Angel, 1929 

Paroedura Giinther, 1879 

androyensis Grandidier, 1867 (porogaster 

Boulenger, 1896) 
bastardi Mocguard, 1900 
gracilis Boulenger, 1896 
guijbeae Dixon and Kroll, 1974 
homalorhinus Angel, 1936 
oviceps Boettger, 1881 
pictus W. Peters, 1854 (madagascariensis Mocguard, 

1895; robustus Boulenger, 1896) 
sanctijohannis Giinther, 1879 
stumpffi Boettger, 1879 

Perochirus Boulenger, 1885 

ateles A. Dumeril, 1856 (articulatus Fischer, 

1882; depressus Fischer, 1882; klugei 

Wermuth, 1965) 
guentheri Boulenger, 1885 
scutellatus Fischer, 1882 

Phelsuma Gray, 1825 (Anoplopus Wagler, 1830; Chiroperus 
Wiegmann, 1834; Rhoptropella Hewitt, 1937; 
Macrophelsuma Hoffstetter, 1946; 
Arc haeo phelsuma Borner, 1972; Neophelsuma 
Borner, 1972) 
abbotti Stejneger, 1893 (sumptio* Cheke, 1982) 
andamanensis Blyth, 1860 (chamaelon Tytler, 1864) 
astriata Tornier, 1901 (carinatum [?] Rendahl, 
1939; maheense Rendahl, 1939; astovei* 
FitzSimons, 1948; semicarinata* Cheke, 1982) 
harbour i Loveridge, 194 2 
befotakensis Borner and Minuth, 1982 



25 

borbonica Mertens , 1966 (agalegae* Cheke, 1975) 

cepediana Merrem, 1820 

chekei Borner and Minuth, 1982 

comorensis Boettger, 1913 

dubia Boettger, 1881 

flavigularis Mertens, 1962 

gigas Lienard, 1842 (newtonii Giinther, 1877; 

newtonii Boulenger, 1884; edwardnewtonii 

Vinson and Vinson, 1969) 
guentheri Boulenger, 1885 
guimbeaui Mertens, 1963 {rosagularis* Vinson and 

Vinson, 1969) 
guttata Kaudern, 1922 
laticauda Boettger, 1880 (angularus* Mertens, 

1964) 
lineata Gray, 1842 {bifasciata* Boettger, 1913; 

chloroscelis* Mertens, 1962; bombetokensis* 

Mertens, 1964; dorsivittata* Mertens, 1964; 

pusilla* Mertens, 1964; punctulata* Mertens, 

1970; leiogaster Mertens, 1973) 
madagascariensis Gray, 1831 (tetradactylus [?] 

Schneider, 1797; sarroubea [?] Daudin, 1802; 

grandis* Gray, 1870; kochi* Mertens, 1954; 

martensi Mertens, 1962; venusta* Mertens, 

1964; notissima Mertens, 1970; boehmei* 

Meier, 1982) 
minuthi Borner, 1980 
modesta Mertens, 1970 
mutabilis Grandidier, 1869 (breviceps* Boettger, 

1894; androyense Mocquard, 1901; micropholis 

Boettger, 1913) 
nigristriata Meier, 1984 
ocellata Boulenger, 1885 
ornata Gray, 1825 (vinsoni Mertens, 1963; 

inexpectata* Mertens, 1966) 
parkeri Loveridge, 1941 
quadriocellata W. Peters, 1883 (bimaculata* 

Kaudern, 1922; leiura* Meier, 1983; parva* 

Meier, 1983) 
rojbertmertensi Meier, 1980 
serraticauda Mertens, 1963 
standing! Methuen and Hewitt, 1913 
sundbergi Rendahl , 1939 (longinsulae* Rendahl , 

1939; pulchra Rendahl, 1939; cousinense 

Rendahl 1939; menaiensis Mertens, 1966; 

ladiguensis* Bohme and Meier, 1981; rubra 

Borner and Minuth, 1982; umbrae Borner and 

Minuth, 1982) 
trilineata Gray, 1842 
v-nigra Boettger, 1913 (pasteuri* Meier, 1984) 



26 



Phyllodactylus Gray, 1828 {Euleptes Fitzinger, 1843; 

Discodactylus Fitzinger, 1843; Gerrhopygus 

Gray, 1845) 
angelensis Dixon, 1966 
angustidigitus Dixon and Huey, 1970 
ansorgii Boulenger, 1907 
apricus Dixon, 1966 
barringtonensis Van Denburgh, 1912 
baurii Garman, 1892 (gorii* Lanza, 1973) 
bordai Taylor, 1942 
bugastrolepis Dixon, 1966 
clinatus Dixon and Huey, 1970 
darwini Taylor, 1942 
davisi Dixon, 1964 
delcampi Mosauer, 1936 

dixoni Rivero-Blanco and Lancini, 1968 
duellmani Dixon, 1960 
europaeus Gene, 1839 {wagleri Fitzinger, 1843; 

doriae Lataste, 1877) 
galapagensis W. Peters, 1869 (daphnensis* Van 

Denburgh, 1912; duncanensis Van Denburgh, 

1912; maresi* Lanza, 1973; olschkii* Lanza, 

1973) 
gerrhopygus Wiegmann, 1835 (gymnopygus Dumeril and 

Bibron, 1836) 
gilberti Heller, 1903 
heterurus Werner, 1907 
homolepidurus H. M. Smith, 1935 (nolascoensis* 

Dixon, 1964) 
inaequalis Cope, 1875 
insularis Dixon, 1960 
interandinus Dixon and Huey, 1970 
johnwrighti Dixon and Huey, 1970 
julieni Cope, 1885 
kofordi Dixon and Huey, 1970 
lanei H. M. Smith, 1935 (magnatuberculatus Taylor, 

1940; rupinus5* Dixon, 1964) 
leei Cope, 1889 
lepidopygus Tschudi , 1845 (phacophorus Tschudi, 

1845; nigrofasciatus Cope, 1878; variegatus 

Werner, 1900) 
lineatus Gray, 1838 (essexi* Hewitt, 1925; 

rupicolus* FitzSimons, 1938) 
martini Lidth de Jeude, 1887 
melanostictus Taylor, 1962 
microlepidotus FitzSimons, 1939 
microphyllus Cope, 1876 

muralis Taylor, 1939 (isthmus* Dixon, 1964) 
palmeus Dixon, 1968 
partidus Dixon, 1966 
paucituberculatus Dixon, 1960 



27 

peringueyi [?] Boulenger, 1910 

porphyreus Daudin, 1802 (brevipes Mocquard, 1900; 

namaquensis Hewitt, 1935; cronwrighti Hewitt, 

1937) 
pulcher Gray, 1828 (spatulatus Cope, 1863) 
pumilis Dixon and Huey, 1970 
reissii W. Peters, 1862 (baessleri Werner, 1900; 

guayaquilensis Werner, 1910; abrupteseriatus 

Werner, 1913; magister Noble, 1924) 
riebeckii W. Peters, 1882 
rutteni Hummel i nek, 1947 
santacruzensis Dixon, 1966 
sentosus Dixon and Huey, 1970 
siamensis Boulenger, 1898 (paviei Mocquard, 1904; 

burmanicus Annandale, 1905) 
tinklei Dixon, 1966 
trachyrhinus Boulenger, 1899 
transversalis Huey, 1975 
tuberculosus Wiegmann, 1835 (magnus* Taylor, 1940; 

edwardofischeri Mertens, 1952; ingeri* Dixon, 

1964; saxatilis* Dixon, 1964) 
unctus Cope, 1864 
ventralis O'Shaughnessy , 1875 (mulleri Parker, 

1935; underwoodi Dixon, 1962) 
wirshingi Kerster and H. M. Smith, 1955 

(hispaniolae* Schwartz, 1979; sommeri* 

Schwartz, 1979) 
xanti Cope, 1864 (mentalis Werner, 1910; 

nocticolus* Dixon, 1964; zweifeli* Dixon, 

1964; acorius* Dixon, 1966; angulus* Dixon, 

1966; circus* Dixon, 1966; estabanensis* 

Dixon, 1966; coronatus* Dixon, 1966; sloani 

Bostic, 1971) 

Phyllopezus W. Peters, 1877 

periosus Rodrigues, 1986 

pollicaris Spix, 1825 (goyazensis W. Peters, 1877; 
przewalskii* Koslowsky, 1894; spixii 
Schlegel, 1933) 

Phyllurus Goldfuss, 1820 (Geckoides Peron, 1807; 

Phyllurus [n.n.] Oken, 1817; Phyllura Kaup, 
1827; Anomalurus Fitzinger, 1843) 

caudiannulatus Covacevich, 1975 

cornutus Ogilby, 1892 (lichenosus Giinther, 1897; 
swaini Wells and Wellington, 1985) 

platurus Shaw, 1790 (phyllurus Schneider, 1797; 
discosura Merrem, 1820; platyura Merrem, 
1820; novae-hollandiae Cuvier, 1822; whitii 
Gray, 1825; cuvieri Bory de Saint-Vincent, 
1828; platycaudus Schinz , 1835; australis 
Swainson, 1839; inermis Gray, 1845) 



28 

salebrosus Covacevich, 1975 

Pletholax Cope, 1864 

gracilis Cope, 1864 (edelensis* Storr, 1978) 

Pristurus Ruppell, 1835 (Spatalura Gray, 1863; 

Geisopristurus Lanza and Sassi, 1968) 
abdelkuri Arnold, 1986 

carteri Gray, 1863 (tuberculatus* Parker, 1931) 
celerrimus Arnold, 1977 
collaris Steindachner , 1867 
crucifer Valenciennes, 1861 (longipes W. Peters, 

1871; stefaninii Calabresi, 1927; 

laticephalus Scortecci, 1933) 
flavipunctatus Ruppell, 1835 (percristatus 

Boulenger, 1896; pseudoflavipunctatus 

Scortecci, 1933) 
gasperetti Arnold, 1986 (gallagheri* Arnold, 1986) 
guichardi Arnold, 1986 
insignis Blanford, 1881 
insignoides Arnold, 1986 
minimus Arnold, 1977 
ornithocephalus Arnold, 1986 
phillipsii Boulenger, 1895 (somalicus Parker, 

1932) 
popovi Arnold, 198 2 
rupestris Blanford, 1874 (migiurtinicus Scortecci, 

1933; guweirensis* Haas, 1951; iranicus* K. 

P. Schmidt, 1952) 
saada Arnold, 1986 
simonettai Lanza and Sassi, 1968 
sokotranus Parker, 193 8 

Pseudogekko Taylor, 1922 

brevipes Boettger, 1897 
compressicorpus Taylor, 1915 
labialis W. Peters, 1867 
smaragdinus Taylor, 1922 

Pseudogonatodes Ruthven, 1915 
barbouri Noble, 1921 
furvus Ruthven, 1915 
guianensis Parker, 1935 (amazonicus* Vanzolini, 

1967) 
lunulatus Roux, 1927 
peruvianus Huey and Dixon, 1970 

Ptenopus Gray, 1865 

carpi Brain, 1962 

garrulus A. Smith, 1849 {maculatus* Gray, 1865) 

kochi Haacke, 1964 



29 

Ptychozoon Kuhl, 1822 (Ptyxozoon Kuhl and Hasselt, 

1822; Pteropleura Gray, 1827) 
horsfieldii Gray, 1827 
intermedium Taylor, 1915 
kuhli Stejneger, 1902 (homalocephala Creveldt, 

1809) 
lionotum Annandale, 1905 
rhacophorus Boulenger, 1899 

Ptyodactylus Goldfuss, 1820 

guttatus Heyden, 1827 (maculatus Schinz, 1833; 

lacazzi Boutan, 1892; siphonorhina J. 

Anderson, 1896) 
hasselquistii Donndorff, 1798 (ascalabotes Merrem, 

1820; lobatus Geoffroy, 1823; ragazzi* J. 

Anderson, 1898; togoensis Tornier, 1901) 
homolepis Blanford, 1876 (socotranus* 

Steindachner, 1902) 
oudrii Lataste, 1880 
puiseuxi Bouton, 1893 (bischoffsheimi Boutan, 

1893; montmahoui Bouton, 1893; barroisi 

Bouton, 1893; syriacus Peracca , 1894; 

sancti-montis Barbour, 1914) 

Pygopus Merrem, 1820 (Hysteropus A. Dumeril, in Dumeril 
and Bibron, 1839; Cryptodelma Fischer, 1882) 

lepidopodus Lacepede, 1804 (novaehollandiae Oppel, 
1811; lepidopus Merrem, 1820; squamiceps 
Gray, 1845; longicaudatus Tepper, 1882) 

nigriceps Fischer, 1882 (baileyi Gunther, 1897; 

schraderi* Boulenger, 1913; klugei Wells and 
Wellington, 1985; territorianus [n.n.] Wells 
and Wellington, 1985) 

Quedenfeldtia Boettger, 1883 

trachyblepharus Boettger, 1874 (moerens Chabanaud, 
1916) 

Rhacodactylus Fitzinger, 1843 (Correlophus Guichenot, 
1866; Ceratolophus Barboza du Bocage, 1873; 
Chameleonurus Boulenger, 1878; Chamaeleonurus 
Carus, 1889; Pseudothecadactylus Brongersma, 
1936; Torresia Brongersma, 1934) 

auriculatus Bavay, 1869 (hexaceros Barboza du 
Bocage, 1873) 

australis Gunther, 1877 

cavaticus Cogger, 1975 

chahoua Bavay, 1869 

ciliatus Guichenot, 1866 

leachianus Cuvier, 1829 (aubryanus Barboza du 
Bocage, 1873) 

lindneri Cogger, 1975 



30 

sarasinorum Roux, 1913 
trachyrhynchus Barboza du Bocage, 1873 
(trachycephalus Boulenger, 1878) 

Rhoptropus W. Peters, 1869 (Dactychylikion Thominot, 1878) 
afer W. Peters, 1869 
Jbarnardi Hewitt, 1926 
biporosus FitzSimons, 1957 

boultoni K. P. Schmidt, 1933 (jbenguellensis* 
Mertens, 1938; montanus* Laurent, 1964) 
braconnieri Thominot, 1878 

bradfieldi Hewitt, 1935 (diporus* Haacke, 1965) 
taeniostictus Laurent, 1964 

Rhynchoedura Gunther, 1867 

ornata Gunther, 1867 (paraornatus Wells and 
Wellington, 1984; ormsbyi Wells and 
Wellington, 1985) 

Saurodactylus Fitzinger, 1843 
fasciatus Werner, 1931 
mauritanicus Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 (desertorum 

Fitzinger, 1843; brosseti* Bons and Pasteur, 

1957) 

Sphaerodactylus Wagler, 1830 (Sphaeriodactylus Gray, 1831) 
alayoi Grant, 1959 
altavelensis Noble and Hassler, 1933 

(brevirostratus* Shreve, 1968; 

enriguilloensis* Shreve, 1968; lucioi Thomas 

and Schwartz, 1983) 
argivus Garman, 1888 (bartschi* Cochran, 1934; 

lewisi* Grant, 1941) 
argus Gosse, 1850 (henriquesi Grant, 1940; 

andresensis* Dunn and Saxe, 1950) 
armasi Schwartz and Garrido, 1974 
armstrongi Noble and Hassler, 1933 (hypsinephes* 

Thomas and Schwartz, 1983) 
asterulus Schwartz and Graham, 1980 
beattyi Grant, 1937 (seamani* Thomas and Schwartz, 

1966) 
becki K. P. Schmidt, 1919 
jbromeiiarum G. Peters and Schwartz, 1972 
caicosensis Cochran, 1934 
callocricus Schwartz, 1976 
cinereus Wagler, 1830 

clenchi Shreve, 1968 (apocoptus* Schwartz, 1983) 
cochranae Ruibal , 1946 
copei Steindachner, 1867 (anthracinus Cope, 1862; 

picturatus* Garman, 1887; asper Garman, 1888; 

cataplexis* Schwartz and Thomas, 1965; 

enochrus* Schwartz and Thomas, 1965; 



31 

polyommatus* Thomas, 1968; astreptus* 

Schwartz, 1975; pelates* Schwartz, 1975; 

websteri* Schwartz, 1975; deuterus* Schwartz, 

1975) 
corticola Garman, 1888 (aporrox* Schwartz, 1968; 

campter* Schwartz, 1968; soter* Schwartz, 

1968) 
cryphius Thomas and Schwartz, 1977 
darlingtoni Shreve, 1968 (noblei* Shreve, 1968; 

bobilini* Thomas and Schwartz, 1983; 

mekistus* Thomas and Schwartz, 1983) 
difficilis Barbour, 1914 (lycauges* Schwartz, 

1983; euopter* Schwartz, 1983; typhlops* 

Schwartz, 1983; peratus* Schwartz, 1983; 

diolenius* Schwartz, 1983; anthracomus* 

Schwartz, 1983) 
dunni K. P. Schmidt, 1936 
elasmorhynchus Thomas, 1966 
elegans Macleay, 1834 (punctatissimus Dumeril and 

Bibron, 1836; alopex Cope, 1862) 
elegantulus Barbour, 1917 
fantasticus Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 

(ligniservulus* King, 1962; anidrotus* 

Thomas, 1965; fuga* Thomas, 1965; hippomanes* 

Thomas, 1965; karukera* Thomas, 1965; 

orescius* Thomas, 1965; phyzacinus* Thomas, 

1965; tartaropylorus* Thomas, 1965) 
gaigeae Grant, 1932 
gilvitorques Cope, 1862 
glaucus Cope, 1865 (inornatus W. Peters, 1873; 

torquatus Strauch, 1887) 
goniorhynchus Cope, 1895 
graptolaemus Harris and Kluge, 1983 
heliconiae Harris, 1982 
homolepis Cope, 1886 (carinatus Andersson, 1916; 

imbricatus Andersson, 1916; mertensi Wermuth, 

1965) 
inaguae Noble and Klingel, 1932 
intermedius Barbour and Ramsden, 1919 (drapetiscus 

Schwartz, 1958) 
klauberi Grant, 1931 
ladae Thomas and Hedges, 1988 
lazelli Shreve, 1968 
leucaster Schwartz, 1973 
levinsi Heatwole, 1968 
lineolatus Lichtenstein and von Martens, 1856 

(casicolus Cope, 1862) 
macrolepis Giinther, 1859 (grandisquamis Stejneger, 
1904; danforthi Grant, 1931; parvus* King, 
1962; ateles* Thomas and Schwartz, 1966; 

guarionex* Thomas and Schwartz, 1966; inigoi* 
Thomas and Schwartz, 1966; mimetes* Thomas 



32 

and Schwartz, 1966; phoberus* Thomas and 

Schwartz, 1966; spanius* Thomas and Schwartz, 

1966; stibarus* Thomas and Schwartz, 1966) 
mariguanae Cochran, 19 34 
microlepis Reinhardt and Liitken, 1863 

(melanospilos Bocourt, 187 3; thomasi* 

Schwartz, 1965) 
micropithecus Schwartz, 1977 
millepunctatus Hallowell, 1861 (continental is 

Werner, 1896) 
molei Boettger, 1894 (jbuergeri Werner, 1900; 

venezuelanus Roux, 1927; boettgeri [n.n. ] 

Donoso Barros, 1968) 
monensis Meerwarth, 1901 
nicholsi Grant, 1931 
nigropunctatus Gray, 1845 (decoratus* Garman, 

1888; flavicauda* Barbour, 1904; gibbus* 

Barbour, 1921; atessares Thomas and Schwartz, 

1966; granti* Thomas and Schwartz, 1966; 

lissodesmus* Thomas and Schwartz, 1966; 

strategus* Thomas and Schwartz, 1966; 

porrasi* Schwartz, 1972) 
notatus Baird, 1858 (exsul* Barbour, 1914; 

amaurus* Schwartz, 1966; atactus* Schwartz, 

1966; peltastes* Schwartz, 1966) 
nycteropus Thomas and Schwartz, 1977 
ocoae Schwartz and Thomas, 1977 
oliveri Grant, 1944 (storeyae* Grant, 1944) 
omoglaux Thomas, 198 2 

oxyrhinus Gosse, 1850 (dacnicolor* Barbour, 1910) 
pacificus Stejneger, 1903 
parkeri Grant, 19 39 
parthenopion Thomas, 1965 
perissodactylius Thomas and Hedges, 1988 
ramsdeni Ruibal, 1959 
randi Shreve, 1968 (methorius* Schwartz, 1977; 

strahmi* Schwartz, 1977) 
rhabdotus Schwartz , 1970 

richardsoni Gray, 1845 (gossei* Grant, 1939) 
roosevelti Grant, 1931 
rosaurae Parker, 1940 
ruibali Grant, 1959 
sabanus Cochran, 1938 
samanensis Cochran, 19 3 2 

savagei Shreve, 1968 (juanilloensis* Shreve, 1968) 
scaber Barbour and Ramsden, 1919 
scapularis Boulenger, 1902 
semasiops Thomas, 1975 
shrevei Lazell, 1961 
sommeri Graham, 1981 

sputator Sparrman, 1784 (pictus Garman, 1888) 
streptophorus Thomas and Schwartz, 1977 



33 

(sphenophanes* Thomas and Schwartz, 1983) 
stejnegeri Cochran, 1931 
thompsoni Schwartz and Franz, 1976 
torrei Barbour, 1914 (spielmani* Grant, 1958; 

ocujal* Thomas and Schwartz, 1966) 
towns end i Grant, 1931 
underwoodi Schwartz, 1968 
vincenti Boulenger, 1891 (festus* Barbour, 1915; 

monilifer* Barbour, 1921; adamas* Schwartz, 

1965; diamesus* Schwartz, 1965; josephinae* 

Schwartz, 1965; pheristus* Schwartz, 1965; 

psammius* Schwartz, 1965; ronaldi* Schwartz, 

1965) 
williamsi Thomas and Schwartz, 1983 
zygaena Schwartz and Thomas, 1977 

Stenodactylus Fitzinger, 1826 (Goniodactylus Schlegel, 
1826; Tolarenta Gray, 1842; Ceramodactylus 
Blanford, 1872; Pseudoceramodactylus Haas, 
1957; Trigonodactylus Haas, 1957; Garzoniella 
Perret, 1976) 

at finis Murray, 1884 

arabicus Haas, 1957 

doriae Blanford, 1874 {major Parker, 1930) 

grandiceps Haas, 1952 

khobarensis Haas, 1957 

leptocosymbotes Leviton and S. Anderson, 1967 

petrii J. Anderson, 1896 (stenurus Werner, 1899; 
elimensis Barbour, 1914) 

pulcher J. Anderson, 1896 

slevini Haas, 1957 (arabicus Haas, 1957; hassi 
Kluge, 1967) 

sthenodactylus Lichtenstein, 1823 {elegans 

Fitzinger, 1826; savignyi Audouin, 1827; 
guttatus Cuvier, 1829; wilkinsonii Gray, 
1842; mauritanicus Guichenot, 1850; hirouxii 
Doumergue, 1899; longipes Perret, 1976) 

yemenensis Arnold, 1980 

Strophurus Fitzinger, 1843 (Strophura Gray, 1845; 

Oedurella Lonnberg and Andersson, 1913; 

Eremiastrophurus Wells and Wellington, 1985) 
assimilis Storr, 1988 

ciliaris Boulenger, 1885 (aberrans* Glauert, 1952) 
elder i Stirling and Zietz, 1893 (mahoodi Wells and 

Wellington, 1985) 
intermedius Ogilby, 1892 
jeanae Storr, 1988 
mcmillani Storr, 1978 
michaelseni Werner, 1910 
rankini Storr, 1979 
spinigerus Gray, 1842 (inornatus* Storr, 1988) 



34 

strophurus Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 (dumerilii 

Fitzinger, 1843) 
taeniatus Lonnberg and Andersson, 1913 
wellingtonae Storr, 1988 
williamsi Kluge, 1963 
wilsoni Storr, 1983 

Tarentola Gray, 182 5 (Makariogecko Joger, 1984; 

Sahelogecko Joger, 1984; Saharogecko Joger, 

1984; Neotarentola Joger 1984) 
americana Gray, 1831 (milberti Dumeril and Bibron, 

1836; cubana Gundlach and W. Peters, 186 5; 

warreni* Schwartz, 1968) 
angustimentalis Steindachner , 1891 
annularis I. Geoffroy, 1827 (savignyi Audouin, 

1827; aegyptiacus Cuvier, 1829; senegalensis 

Boulenger, 1885; quadraticauda Toriner, 1905; 

relicta* Joger, 1984) 
boehmei Joger, 1984 
boettgeri Steindachner, 1891 (hierrensis* Joger 

and Bischoff, 1983; bischoffi* Joger, 1984) 
borneensis Gray, 1845 (gigas* Barboza du Bocage, 

1875; rudis* Boulenger, 1906; protogigas* 

Joger, 1984; maioensis* Schleich, 1984; 

brancoensis Schleich, 1984) 
caboverdianus Schleich, 1984 (substituta* 

Schleich, 1984; antoensis Joger, 1984; 

razianus* Schleich, 1984; nicolauensis* 

Schleich, 1984) 
clypeata [?] Gray, 1842 
darwini Joger, 1984 

delalandii Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 
deserti Boulenger, 1891 
ephippiata O'Shaughnessy , 1875 (hoggarensis* 

Werner, 1937; panousei Pasteur, 1959; 

senegamjbiae* Joger, 1984; nikolausi* Joger, 

1984) 
gomerensis Joger and Bischoff, 1983 
mauritanica Linnaeus, 1758 (muricatus Laurenti, 

1768; fascicularis* Daudin, 1802; stellio 

Merrem, 1820; muralis Dumeril and Bibron, 

1836; facetanus Strauch, 1862; atlantica 

Doumergue, 1899; gracilis Doumergue , 1899; 

lissoide Doumergue, 1899; saharae Doumergue, 

1899; tuberculata Rosen, 1905; juliae* Joger, 

1984) 
neglecta Strauch, 1887 (angusticeps Strauch, 1887; 

greyi* Joger, 1984) 
parvicarinata Joger, 1980 

Tenuidactylus Shcherbak and Golubev, 1984 

caspius Eichwald, 1831 (fasciatus Menetries, 1832; 



35 

insularis Akhmedow and Shcherbak, 1978) 
fedtschenkoi Strauch, 1887 

longipes Nikolsky, 1896 (microlepis* Lantz , 1918) 
turcmenicus Shcherbak, 1978 
voraginosus Leviton and S. Anderson, 1984 

Teratolepis Giinther, 1870 

albofasciatus Grandison and Soman, 1963 
fasciata Blyth, 1853 

Teratosc incus Strauch, 1863 

bedriagai Nikolsky, 1899 

microlepis Nikolsky, 1899 

przewalskii Strauch, 1887 

scincus Schlegel, 1858 (keyserlingii* Strauch, 
1863; zarudnyi Nikolsky, 1896; roborowskii 
Bedriaga, 1905; rustamowi* Shcherbak, 1979) 

Thecadactylus Oken, 1817 (Thecodactylus Wagler, 1830) 
rapicauda Houttuyn, 1782 (perfoliatus Schneider, 
1793; laevis Daudin, 1802; surinamensis 
Daudin, 1802; theconyx Dumeril and Bibron, 
1836; tristis Hallowell, 1854) 

Tropiocolotes W. Peters, 1880 
persicus Nikolsky, 1903 
scorteccii Cherchi and Spano, 1963 
steudneri W. Peters, 1869 (petersii Boulenger, 

1891; natterei Steindachner , 1900) 
tripolitanus W. Peters, 1880 {occidental is* 

Parker, 1942; somalicus* Parker, 1942; 

algericus* Love ridge, 1947; apoklomax 

Papenfuss, 1970) 

Urocotyledon Kluge, 1983 

inexpectata Stejneger, 1893 
palmata Mocguard, 1902 
weileri L. Miiller, 1909 
wolterstorffi Tornier, 1900 

Uroplatus A. Dumeril, 1805 [1806] (Uroplates Gray, 
1825; Rhacoessa Wagler, 1830; Oiacurus 
Fitzinger, 1843; Lonchurus Fitzinger, 1843) 

alluaudi Mocguard, 1894 

ejbenaui Boettger, 1879 (boettgeri Fischer, 1883 
[1884]; phantasticus Boulenger, 1888; 
Schneider i Lamberton, 1913) 

fimbriatus Schneider, 1797 (hypoxantha Wagler, 
1833) 

guentheri Mocguard, 1908 

lineatus Dumeril and Bibron, 1836 

sikorae Boettger, 1913 



40 

l«(o(e 

tPT 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE GENUS OXYBELIS WAGLER 
(SERPENTES: COLUBRIDAE) 




EDMUND D. REISER, JR. 

Department of Biology 
University of Mississippi 



SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL INFORMATION 
SERVICE 
NO. 86 




1991 



SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL 
INFORMATION 
SERVICE 



The SHIS series publishes and distributes translations, 
bibliographies, indices, and similar items judged useful 
to individuals interested in the biology of amphibians 
and reptiles, but unlikely to be published in the normal 
technical journals. Single copies are distributed free 
to interested individuals. Libraries, herpetological 
associations, and research laboratories are invited to 
exchange their publications with the Division of 
Amphibians and Reptiles. 

We wish to encourage individuals to share their 
bibliographies, translations, etc. with other 
herpetologists through the SHIS series. If you have 
such items please contact George Zug for instructions on 
preparation and submission. Contributors receive 50 
free copies. 



Please address all requests for copies and inquiries to 
George Zug, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, 
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington DC 20560 USA. Please include 
a self -addressed mailing label with requests. 



INTRODUCTION 



Compiling a bibliography which spans over two and a half 
centuries and includes scholarly works from a score of countries 
is both time-consuming and rewarding. I began accumulating 
references on neotropical vine snakes of the genus Oxybelis in 
1965 when I was a student at Louisiana State University. My 
initial reference was Bogert and Oliver's 1945: "A Preliminary 
Analysis of the Herpetofauna of Sonora." 

Five species make up the genus Oxybelis Wagler. These are: 0. 
aeneus, 0. argenteus , 0. boulengeri , 0. brevirostris , and 0. 
fulgidus . The species of the genus are distributed from the 
extreme southwestern United States (Arizona), south through 
tropical Mexico and Central America, to Brazil, Bolivia, and 
Peru in South America. The southern limits of the range are 
poorly known. 

This bibliography lists known references to the genus, to 
recognized species of the genus, and to all junior synonyms. 
Publications mentioning species erroneously placed within 
Oxybelis and now assigned elsewhere are likewise cited. A few 
titles which mention no specific Oxbelis taxa but which are 
considered particularly relevant to their taxonomy are also 
included. In this latter category are several papers which have 
been used in the literature to establish priority dates for 
determining seguences of synonyms of Oxybelis taxa. 

Although some subjective interpretations are necessary, Seba 
(1735) and Schuechzer (1735a and/or 1735b) may be the earliest 
references to these snakes of which I am aware. By the mid- 
1800 's, a considerable literature existed. Brief commentaries 
on distribution, locality records, or anatomy made up the bulk 
of this. Papers on snakes of the genus Oxybelis have increased 
in recent decades and considerably more detailed studies have 
occasionally appeared. 

Although more recent titles have been added, intensive 
literature searching ceased in November of 1989. Omissions from 
this list may be due to my having overlooked citations or not 
having had the opportunity to verify sources in time for 
inclusion herein. The bibliography is reasonably comprehensive 
and it should prove a useful tool for anyone working with these 
snakes. 

Over the years, many persons have assisted me in searching the 
literature, in translating non-English papers, and in 
interpreting older literature. Others have helped by calling my 
attention to papers in less prominent journals. To list their 
names at this time would undoubtedly result in unintended 
omissions of oversight. Nevertheless, I extend my thanks to all 
who have been of assistance. I am especially grateful to two 
persons who were particularly helpful during the final stages of 



preparing this manuscript. Marinus S. Hoogmoed provided 
invaluable comments on plates in the Schuechzer papers (1735a, 
1735b, 1738), which had proven particularly difficult to 
interpret. Kenneth L. Williams supplied a number of references I 
had not previously encountered and also spent considerable time 
and effort copying and/or verifying reference sources for me. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

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8 

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TYPES AND HISTORICALLY 



IMPORTANT SPECIMENS OF RATTLESNAKES 

IN THE 

MUSEUM NATIONAL D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE (PARIS) 



MICHEL THIREAU 

Laboratoire des Reptiles et Amphibiens 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle 



SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL INFORMATION 
SERVICE 
NO. 87 



1991 



SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL 
INFORMATION 
SERVICE 



The SHIS series publishes and distributes translations, 
bibliographies, indices, and similar items judged useful 
to individuals interested in the biology of amphibians 
and reptiles, but unlikely to be published in the normal 
technical journals. Single copies are distributed free 
to interested individuals. Libraries, herpetological 
associations, and research laboratories are invited to 
exchange their publications with the Division of 
Amphibians and Reptiles. 

We wish to encourage individuals to share their 
bibliographies, translations, etc. with other 
herpetologists through the SHIS series. If you have 
such items please contact George Zug for instructions on 
preparation and submission. Contributors receive 50 
free copies. 

Please address all requests for copies and inquiries to 
George Zug, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, 
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington DC 20560 USA. Please include 
a self-addressed mailing label with requests. 




The cover illustration is from Lacepede 1788 :pl. 18, 



INTRODUCTION 

According to the classification of Hoge and Romano-Hoge 
(1981), rattlesnakes, "serpents a sonnettes," are members of the 
Viperidae Laurenti 1768, which consists of four subfamilies: 
Viper inae Laurenti 1768, Azemiopinae Liem, Marx and Rabb 1971, 
Causinae Cope 1860, and Crotalinae Oppel 1871. The Crotalinae 
is further subdivided into the tribes Agkistrodontini Gray 1825 
and Crotalini Gray 1825. One group of Crotalini contains two 
genera: Sistrurus Garman 1883 and Crotalus Linne 1758; the former 
represents the primitive rattlesnakes, the latter the derived 
ones. The evolution of the rattlesnakes has been discussed in 
several important monographs (e.g., Gloyd, 1940, Klauber, 1956 & 
1972, brattstrom, 1964). 

The purpose of this report is to summarize the information 
uncovered during my search for lost types and taxonomically- 
nomenclaturally important specimens. The information is 
presented in two parts. The first part examines the type 
specimens of nominal species, whether or not the specimen's 
presence has been confirmed in our collections. The second part 
examines historical specimens, i.e., those specimens used by A. 
M. C. Dumeril, A. H. A. Dumeril, and G. Bibron in their 
redescription of species named by their predecessors. The types 
represent eight binominals and one trinominal; the historical 
specimens were used in eight binominals. In each case, the 
species are arranged alphabetically. All the specimens discussed 
herein are stored in alcohol and are housed in the Museum 
national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris (MNHN) . 

The information for each species is arranged in the following 
manner: 1) the author, date of publication, reference 
(abbreviated) with page of original description and 
identification of any associated illustrations, occasionally 
outside text or as a painting on vellum; 2) the current status of 
the taxon; 3) the catalogue number in the registry of the 
Laboratoire de Zoologie (Reptiles et Amphibiens) ; 4) the status 
of the type; 5) the original citation of the type locality and 
subseguent restrictions; 6) the name of the collector and/or 
donor, sometimes with date(s) of collection/donation; 7) the 
length of the body (TL, from tip of snout to base of the rattle) ; 
8) supplementary comments. 

Finally, as much as possible, my purpose is to trace lost 
types as well as the historically important specimens. 



TYPES 

Crotalus atricaudatus Latreille In Sonnini et Latreille, 1801, 
Hist. nat. des Rept. , 3:209, 4:323, 402. 
= Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, 1758; fide Collins & Knight, 1980 

No types specimens were located. Type locality, "Caroline"; 
restricted to "Charleston, South Carolina" by Schmidt 
(1953:228). Bosc was the collector of the type series. He 
proposed the name atricaudatus in a manuscript used by 
Latreille. Most likely, no specimens were sent to Paris (cf. 
also Daudin, 1803, 5:316 n.i.p.). 

Crotalus boiquira Lacepede, 1789, Hist. Nat. Quadr. ovipares et 
des Serpens. In 4°, 2:130, 390, pi. 18, fig. 1. In 12°, 4:6, 
142, 209, 356, pi . 7 , fig. 1. 

=Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, 1758, fide Collins & Knight, 
1980. 

No types specimens were located. One specimen was deposited 
in the Royal Cabinet. Type locality, "Nouveau Monde," 
"depuis la terre de Magellan jusqu'au lac Champlain, vers le 
quarante-cinquieme degre de latitude septentrionale, " near 
"de la grande chute d'eau du Niagara," "Caroline." TL 132 cm 
(this is 4 feet, 10 lines and 4 inches, according to Lacepede 



melanurus Garman, 1883, Mem. Mus. Comp. 
Linnaeus, 1758; fide Collins & Knight, 



Holotype, MNHN 821. Type locality, "Caroline du Sud." 
Collector and donor unknown. TL 91.5 cm. The synonymy 
derives from Pisani et al. (1973). Crotalus durissus var. 
melanurus Jan, 1859:153 is a nomen nudum, which has no 
official status according to the International Code of 
Zoological Nomenclature (1985:285-286). This holotype was 
received by the Paris museum in exchange from Milan (cf. 
e.g., Dumeril, A.H.A., In Jan, 1858:438-439; Jan, 1858:515; 
Dumeril, A.H.A., 1865:47-50). 

Crotalus immaculatus Latreille In Sonnini et Latreille, 1801, 
Hist. nat. des Rept., 3:201, 4:323, 402. 

= Crotalus durissus terrificus ( Laurent i, 1768) ; fide Klauber, 
1972. 

No type specimens were located. A specimen was maintained in 
the galleries of the Museum d'Histoire naturelle. Daudin 



(12°, 


4:142) . 




Crotalus 


durissus 


var. 


Zool. 


3(3) :175 


. 


=Crot 


alus horridus 


1980. 







(1803, 5:319) recorded its length as approximately two French 
ft, thus TL about 65 cm. Latreille incorrectly indicated 
that the type series derived from "Indes orientales," in his 
reference to Seba (1735, 2: pi. 95, no. 3 "Vipera Caudisona 
Ceilanica. Autre vipere a queue sonnante, de Ceylon, 100" 
and pi. 96, no. 1. "Vipera Orientalis, maxima, Caudisona, 
Foemina. Vipere a queue sonnante, Orientale, femelle, tres 
grande, 101"). 

Crotalus Jimenez ii Duges, 1877, Naturaleza, 4:23, pi. h.t. 1, 
fig. 18-20. 

= Crotalus polystictus (Cope, 1865) ; fide Hoge and Romano- 
Hoge, 1981. 

Syntype?, MNHN 1883.284. Catalogue locality, "Guanajuato, 
200 km a l'Est de Guadalajare [Mexico]." Donor, Duges (14 
December 1888). TL 89.5 cm. 

Syntype?, MNHN 1883.288. Catalogue locality, "Guanajuato, 
200 km a l'Est de Guadalajare [Mexico]." Donor, Duges (12 
May 1883) . TL 32 cm. 

The date of publication for this new taxon was determined by 
Smith (1942:96). The type localities are "Silao 
[Guanajuato], Colima et Guadalajara," all three in Mexico. 
Smith and Taylor (1950:334) restricted the type locality to 
Guadalajara, Jalisco. Smith and Necker (1943:179) stated 
that Duges sent "... specimens to many specialists in Europe 
and the United States to aid in the description and 
elucidation of the Mexican fauna." Smith and Necker 
(1943:180) reported "Cotypes of . . . Crotalus Jimenez ii are 
present in United States Collection, although lacking in the 
Duges Museum" and on a following page (1943:187) "A specimen 
in the U.S. National Museum (No 46508, from Guanajuato), is 
said to be a ^duplicate type' of Jimenez ii . It is a small 
specimen, presented to Nelson and Goldman by -Duges in 1896. 
Two other specimens in the Nat. Mus. presented by Duges (Nos 
24448, 26152), may be cotypes. The latter also are from 
x Guana j uato. '" Cochran (1961:170) did not mention these 
latter two specimens, nor did McCranie (1976:180.1). 

Crotalus luoubris Jan, 1859, Plan d'une Iconographie descriptive 
des Ophidiens, Rev. Mag. Zool., 2 2 erne ser. , (11): 153, 156, 
pi. E. (4eme fig.); off-print: 28, 31, pi. E (4eme fig.). 
= Crotalus triseriatus triseriatus (Wagler, 1830) ; fide Hoge 
and Romano-Hoge, 1981. 



Paralectotype, MNHN 7754. Type locality, "Mexique." 
Collector and donor unknown. TL 50 cm. The type specimen in 
the Paris museum was described specifically by Jan in his 



table of quantitative data. The heterogeneity of the type 
series caused Klauber (1940:17) to designate a lectotype of 
C. lugubris, and he selected No. 1414 deposited in the Milan 
museum and described by Jan in his table (second column) . 
Klauber later (1972:48) indicated that this specimen 
(originally from Mexico) had been destroyed. 

Crotalus rhombifer Latreille, In Sonnini et Latreille, 1801, 
Hist. nat. des Rept. 3:197, 4:322, 402. 

= Crotalus adamanteus Palisot de Beauvois, 1799; fide 
McCranie, 1980. 

No type specimens were located. Type locality, "Amerique" ; 
restricted to Gainesville, Florida [USA] by Schmidt 
(1953:230). Specimen(s) were supposedly present in the 
"Collection des serpens du Museum d'Histoire naturelle de 
Paris" (fide Latreille) . 

Crotalus aimus Latreille, In Sonnini et Latreille, 1801, Hist, 
nat. des Rept. 3:202, 4:323, 402. 

= Crotalus durissus durissus (Linnaeus, 1758) ; fide Hoge and 
Romano-Hoge, 1981. 

No type specimens were located. Type locality, "Ceylan". 
According to Latreille, "Un individu de cette espece [est] 
conserve au Museum national." According to Daudin (1803, 
5:321), the type specimen of Paris was part of the Seba 
collection. 

Crotalus atrepitans Daudin, 1803, Hist. Nat. Gene, et Part, des 
Reptiles 5:318. 

= Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768) ; fide Klauber, 
1972. 

No type specimens were found. Type locality, "continent de 
1 'Amerique" . TL approx. 65 cm. According to Daudin "... 
1' individu, place dans la galerie du museum d'histoire 
naturelle de Paris, n'a que deux pieds environs de longueur." 



HISTORICALLY IMPORTANT SPECIMEN 

Crotalus atrox : DB&D, 1854, Erp. Gene. 7(2):1464, 1482. 
= Crotalus atrox Baird and Girard, 1853. 

« 

MNHN 4034. Locality, Texas, USA. Donated by Trecul (August 
1850?). Described also by A.H.A. Dumeril (1857:45). 



Crotalus confluentes : DB&D, 1854, Erp. Gene. 7(2):1464, 1475. 
Atlas Erp. Gene. 1854: pi. 84 bls , fig. 4. For Crotalus 
confluentes Say, 1823. 
= Crotalus viridis (Rafinesque, 1818) . 

MNHN 4035. Locality, Texas, USA. Donated by Trecul (August 
1850?) . TL 89.5 cm. 

MNHN 4036. Locality, Texas, USA. Donated by Trecul (August 
1850?) . TL 113 cm. Illustrated in Atlas. 

Crotalus durissus : DB&D, 1854, Erp. Gene. 7(2):1462, 1465. For 
Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758. 

=Crotalus adamanteus Palisot de Beauvois, 1799. 

MNHN 7750. Locality, "Amerique septentrionale" = southern 

USA. Collected and donated by Bosc. TL 93.5 cm. 

= Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758. 

MNHN 7752. Locality, Mexico. Collected and donated by Bosc. 

TL 121.5 cm. 

Crotalus durissus : DB&D, 1854, Erp. Gene. 7(2):1465. Atlas, Erp. 
Gene. 1854: pi. 84 bls , fig. 1. Dumeril, A.H.A., 1854, Arch. 
Mus. natn. Hist, nat., Paris 7:283. For Crotalus durissus 
Linnaeus, 1758. 
=Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, 1758. 

MNHN 883. Locality, "Amerique septentrionale" = southern 
USA. Donated by Harpert (February 1842) . TL 104 cm. Atlas 
illustration not reported by Collins and Knight, 1980. 

Crotalus durissus : DB&D, 1854, Erp. Gene. 7(2):1465, 1466. 
Dumeril, A.H.A., 1854, Arch. Mus. natn. Hist, nat., Paris 
7:282. Dumeril, A.H.A. , 1861, Arch. Mus. natn. Hist, nat., 
Paris 10:439. For Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758. 
= Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, 1758. 

MNHN 3660. Locality, New York (center of Milbert's 
scientific operations, fide Boitard and Janin, 1842:37). 
Collected and donated by Milbert. TL 143.5 cm. Vel. 88(4)* 
drawn by Chazal from the living specimen in 1833. At this 
time, the tail has seven rattle segments, compared to 13 when 
deposited in the collection. [ A painting on vellum (tome 
88, no. 4) held in the central library/MNHN, Paris.] 



Crotalua horridus ; DB&D, 1854, Erp. Gene. 7(2):1472. For 
Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, 1758. 
= Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758. 

MNHN 3211. Locality, Brazil. Donated by Clossen (March 
1844) . TL 109 cm. 

MNHN 4033. Locality, Ste. Marthe, District de Cundimarcha, 
about 700 km N Bogota, 11°19'N 76°24 / W [Colombia]. Donated 
by son of Fontanier (July 1853). TL 37.5 cm. 

Crotalus Kirtlandii : DB&D, 1854, Erp. Gene. 7(2):1482. Dumeril, 
A.H.A., 1857, Cat. Rept. Coll. M.H.N. P. :45. For Crotalus 
kirtland Holbrook, 1842. 
= Sistrurus catenatus (Rafinesque, 1818) . 

MNHN 890. Locality, Ohio [USA]. Donated by Hallowell (June 
1855) . TL 48 cm. 

Crotalus miliarius : Dumeril, A.H.A. , 1857, Cat. Rept. Coll. 
M.H.N. P. :45. 
= Sistrurus miliarius (Linnaeus, 1758) . 

MNHN 886. Locality, "Amerique septentrionale" = southern 
USA. Donated by Harlan. TL 35.5 cm. Palmer (1978:220.1) 
summarized only the AngloSaxon literature, except for two of 
51 references cited. 

Crotalus rhombifer : DB&D,. 1854, Erp. Gene. 7(2):1470. Atlas, Erp. 
Gene. 1854: pi. 84 bls , fig. 3. For Crotalus rhombifer 
Latreille In Sonnini and Latreille, 1801. 
= Crotalus adamanteus Palisot de Beauvois, 1799. 

MNHN 882. Locality, United States. TL 138 cm. Atlas figure 
3 depicts the dorsal pattern of MNHN 882 but with several 
modifications to the symmetry of the dorsorostral head 
scalation. McCranie (1980: 252.1) did not report the 
existence of this illustration. 

Crotalus tergeminus: DB&D, 1854, Erp. Gene. 7(2):1479. Atlas, 
Erp. Gene., 1854: pi. 84 bls , fig. 5. For Crotalus 
tergeminus Say, 1823. 
=Sistrurus catenatus (Rafinesque, 1818) . 

MNHN 887. Locality, Charlestown, north of Louisville, 
Indiana [USA]. Donated by Holbrook (January 1846). TL 55.5 
cm. This is the specimen illustrated in the Atlas. Minton 



(1983:332.1) did not report the existence of this 

illustration. 

MNHN 2074. Locality, Charlestown, north of Louisville, 

Indiana [USA] . Donated by Holbrook (January 1846) . TL 25 

cm. 



Acknowledgements . 

I wish to thank my colleagues, the researchers and technicians in the 
laboratory, and also Y. Laissus and C. Hustache (Bibliotheque 
centrale) for their assistance in examining the Museum's rare 
books. Mr. Polls worked with me on the analysis of Sistrurus 
miliarius . A. Dubois critically reviewed an earlier draft of 



this manuscript. 



!&. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Baird, S. F. , and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American 
Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part. 
I.-Serpentes. Smithsonian Institution; Washington, D.C. 

Boitard, M. , and M. J. Janin. 1842. Le Jardin des Plantes, 

description et moeurs des Mammiferes de la menagerie et du 
Museum d' Histoire naturelle, precede d'une introduction 
historigue, descriptive et pittoresgue. Dubochet; Paris. i- 
lxvi, 472 pp., 1 pi., h.t. map. 

Brattstrom, B. H. 1964. Evolution of the pit-vipers. Trans. San 
Diego Soc. Natur. Hist. 13(11): 185-268. 

Cochran, D. M. 1961. Type specimens of reptiles and amphibians 
in the U.S. National Museum. United States Natl. Mus. Bull. 
(220): 1-291. 

Collins, J. T., and J. L. Knight. 1980. Crotalus horridus 
Linnaeus. Catalogue Amer. Amphibians & Reptiles 253.1-2. 

Daudin, F. M. 1803. Histoire naturelle generale et particuliere 

des Reptiles. Tome 5. Dufart; Paris. 365 pp. 
Duges, A. 1877. Apuntes para la monographia de los crotalos de 

Mexico. Naturaleza 4: 23-25, 1 pi. (fig. 18-20). 
Dumeril, A. H. A. 1854. Notice historigue sur la Menagerie des 

Reptiles du Museum d' Histoire naturelle et observations gui y 

ont ete recueillies. Arch. Mus. natn. Hist, natur., Paris 7: 

193-320. 
Dumeril, A. H. A. 1857. Catalogue des Reptiles de la collection 

du Museum d' Histoire naturelle de Paris, le 1 er Mars 1857. 

MS no. 221, Bibliothegue Centrale du Museum. 54 pp. 
Dumeril, A. H. A. 1858. In G. Jan, Plan d'une iconographie 

descriptive des Ophidiens et description sommaire de 

nouvelles especes de Serpents. Rev. Mag. Zool. 2leme annee, 

2eme ser. (10): 439-442. 
Dumeril, A. H. A. 1861. Lettres relatives au Catalogue des 

Poissons de la collection du Museum d'Histoire naturelle de 

Paris et au Catalogue de la menagerie des Reptiles, suivies 

de notes sur la menagerie des Reptiles. Arch. Mus. natn. 

Hist, natur., Paris 10: 429-460. 
Dumeril, A. H. A. 1865. Note sur la collection des Reptiles et 

des Batraciens du Museum d'Histoire naturelle. Nouv. Archs. 

Mus. Hist, natur., Paris, 1, Bull.: 47-50. 
Dumeril, A. M. C, G. Bibron, and A. H. A. Dumeril. 1854. 

Erpetologie generale ou Histoire naturelle complete des 

Reptiles. Tome 7, 2eme part, i-xii, 781-1536. [Crotalus pp. 1453- 

1483] Roret; Paris. 



Dumeril, A. M. C. , G. Bibron, and A. H. A. Dumeril. 1854. 
Erpetologie generale ou Histoire naturelle complete des 
Reptiles. Atlas. i-xxiv, 120 pi. [and a portrait of Bibron] 
Roret ; Paris . 

Garman, S. 1883. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. 

Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. 3(3): 1-185, 10 pi. h.t. 
Gloyd, H. K. 1940. The rattlesnakes, genera Sistrurus and 

Crotalus . Chicago Acad. Sci. 4: i-vii, 1-266, 31 pi. h.t. 

Hoge, A. R. , and S. A. R. W. L. Romano-Hoge. 1981. Poisonous 

snakes of the world. Part 1. Checklist of the pit vipers. 

Viperoidea, Viper idae, Crotalinae. Mem. Inst. Butantan 

[1978-1979] 42/43: 179-310. 
Holbrook, J. E. 1842. North American Herpetology ; or, A 

Description of the Reptiles Inhabiting the United States. 

Vol. Ill, i-iii, 4-128. 

International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Third Edition. 
1985. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature; 
London, i-xx, 3 38 pp. 

Jan, G. 1858. Plan d'une Iconographie descriptive des 

Ophidiens, et description sommaire de nouvelles especes de 

Serpents. Rev. Mag. Zool. 21 erne annee, 2eme ser. (10): 
438-449, 514-527. 

Jan, G. 1859. Plan d'une Iconographie descriptive des 

Ophidiens, et description sommaire de nouvelles especes de 

Serpents. Rev. Mag. Zool. 22eme annee, 2eme ser. (11): 
148-157. 

Klauber, L. M. 1940. The types of Crotalus luoubris Jan, 1859. 

Copeia 1940(1): 17-18. 
Klauber, L. M. 1956. Rattlesnakes. 1st Edition. Univ. 

California Press; Berkeley. Vol. 1, i-xxix, 1--708; Vol. 2, i- 

xvii, 709-1476. 
Klauber, L. M. 1972. Rattlesnakes. 2nd Edition. Univ. 

California Press; Berkeley. Vol. 1, i-xxx, 1-740; Vol. 2, i- 

xvii, 741-1533. 

Lacepede, B. E. 1789. Histoire Naturelle des quadrupedes 

ovipares et des serpens. Hotel de Thou; Paris. In 4°, vol. 
2, i-viii, 144 pp. + 480 pp., 1 tabl. Meth. [Pages 397-400 
never existed; pages 381-384 are doubled in MNHN copy. Pers. 
observ. , Roux-Esteve] . In 12°, 1789, vol. 4, i-viii, 408 pp. 

Laurenti, J. N. 1768. Specimen medicum, exhibens synopsin 

reptilium emendatam cum experimentis circa venena et antidota 
reptilium austriacorum. J. Thorn. Nob. de Trattnern; Viennae. 

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae, per regna tria naturae, 
secundum classes, . . . Editio decima. Laurenti Salvii; 
Holmiae. Vol. 1, i-iii, 824 pp. 



10 

McCranie, J. R. 1976. Crotalus polystict us (Cope). Catalogue 

Amer. Amphibians & Reptiles 180.1-2. 
McCranie, J. R. 1980. Crotalus adamanteus Beauvois. Catalogue 

Amer. Amphibians & Reptiles 252.1-2. 
Minton, S. A. 1983. sistrurus catenatus (Raf inesque) . Catalogue 

Amer. Amphibians & Reptiles 332.1-2. 

Palisot de Beauvois, A. M. F. J. 1799. Memoir on Amphibia. 
Serpents. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. 42: 362-381. 

Palmer, W. M. 1978. sistrurus miliarius (Linnaeus). Catalogue 
Amer. Amphibians & Reptiles 220.1-2. 

Pisani, G. R., J. T. Collins, and S. R. Edwards. 1973. A re- 
evaluation of the subspecies of Crotalus horridus. Trans. 
Kansas Acad. Sci. 75 (3) : 255-263 . 

Raf inesque, C. S. 1818. Farther accounts of discoveries in 

natural history, in the western states. Amer. Monthly Mag. 

Crit. Rev. 4: 39-42. 
Say, T. 1823. in E. James (compiler), Account of an Expedition 
'from Pittsburg to the Rocky Mountains, Performed in the Years 
1819 and '20, By Order of the Hon. J.C. Calhoun, Sec'y of 
War: Under the Command of Major Stephen H. Long. Vol. II. 
H.C. Carey & I. Lea; Philadelphia. 
Schmidt, K. P. 1953. A Check List of North American Amphibians 
and'Reptiles. Sixth edition. Amer. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol.; 
Chicago. i-vii, 280 pp. 
Seba, G. F. 1735. Description Exacte des principales cunosites 
naturelles du magnifique cabinet d' Albert Seba. 
Amstelaedami . Vol. 2, i-xxxii, 154 pp., 114 pi. 
Smith, H. M. 1942. The publication dates of "La Naturaleza. 

Lloydia 5(1-4): 95-96. 
Smith, H. M., and W. L. Necker. 1943. Alfredo Duges' types of 
Mexican reptiles and amphibians. An. Esc. Nac. Cien. biol. 
Mexico. 3(1-2): 179-219, 7 pi. h. t. . 
Smith, H. M., and E. H. Taylor. 1950. Type localities of 

Mexican reptiles and amphibians. Kansas Univ. Sci. Bull. 
33(2): 313-380, 7 pi. h.t. 
Sonnini, C. S., and P. A. Latreille. 1801. Histoire naturelle 
des Reptiles. Deterville; Paris. Vol. 1, l-xn, 280 pp.; 
vol. 2, i-ii, 332 pp.; vol. 3, 335 pp.; vol. 4, 410 pp. 

Wagler, J. 1830. NatUrliches System der Amphibien mit 

vorangehender Classification der SHugthiere und Vogel. J.G. 
cotta'schen Buch. ; MUnchen. i-vi, 354 pp. 



SPECIES RICHNESS MAPS 
OF THE 
FRESHWATER AND TERRESTRIAL TURTLES 

OF THE WORLD 




JOHN B. IVERSON 

Department of Biology 
Earlham College 



SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL INFORMATION 
SERVICE 
NO. 88 



1992 



SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL 
INFORMATION 
SERVICE 



The SHIS series publishes and distributes translations, 
bibliographies, indices, and similar items judged useful 
to individuals interested in the biology of amphibians 
and reptiles, but unlikely to be published in the normal 
technical journals. Single copies are distributed free 
to interested individuals. Libraries, herpetological 
associations, and research laboratories are invited to 
exchange their publications with the Division of 
Amphibians and Reptiles. 

We wish to encourage individuals to share their 
bibliographies, translations, etc. with other 
herpetologists through the SHIS series. If you have 
such items please contact George Zug for instructions on 
preparation and submission. Contributors receive 50 
free copies. 

Please address all requests for copies and inquiries to 
George Zug, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, 
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington DC 20560 USA. Please include 
a self-addressed mailing label with requests. 



INTRODUCTION 

With the publication of my turtle checklist (Iverson, 1986) it was finally possible to 
begin preliminary analyses of the patterns and correlates of species richness in turtles on a 
global scale. As a first step I prepared species density maps for each turtle family by 
outlining the range of each turtle species as plotted in Iverson (1986), and manually 
overlaying those range maps to produce species richness isopleth (= species density) maps. 
This was undertaken with the clear realization that the taxonomy and distribution of turtles 
in some areas of the world was still not well studied (especially southeast Asia), but that 
general patterns of species density would not change radically even with much further 
study. 

The species density maps that were generated revealed a number of interesting 
zoogeographic patterns, and stimulated a pilot study of the correlates of maximum 
freshwater and terrestrial turtle species density in 42 river basins across five continents 
(Iverson, 1991). However, because of journal space limitations, it was not possible to 
publish the species density maps along with that analysis. Those maps are reproduced here 
in hope of stimulating further analyses of the distribution and zoogeography of turtles. 
The maps appear in the same order as the taxa appeared in Iverson (1986). 



LITERATURE CITED 

Iverson, J. B. 1986. Checklist with Distribution Maps of the Turtles of the World. 

Iverson Publ., Richmond, Indiana. 
Iverson, J. B. 1991. Global correlates of species richness in turtles. Herpetol. J. (in 

press) 




Fig. 1. Species richness of the family Carettochelyidae on New Guinea and Northern Australia. 




Fig. 2. Species richness of the family Chelydridae 
on North and Central America. 





Fig. 3. Species richness of the family Chelydridae Fig. 4. Species richness of the family Dermatemydidae 
on northwestern South America. on Mexico and Central America. 




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Fig. 6. Species richness of the subfamily Batagurinae (family Emydidae) on Central America. 




Fig. 7. Species richness of the subfamily Batagurinae (family Emydidae) on South America. 




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Fig. 9. Species richness of the subfamily Emydinae (family Emydidae) on North and 
Central America, excluding the box turtle genus Terrapene and the salt 
marsh terrapin genusMalaclemys (see Fig. 10). 




Fig. 10. Species richness of the box turtles of the genus Terrapene and the salt marsh terrapin of 
the genus Malaclemys (subfamily Emydinae; family Emydidae) on North America (see Fig 9) 
Dotted line parallels the coastline along which a single species of Malaclemys occurs 




Fig. 11. Species richness of the subfamily Emydinae (family Emydidae) on northern South America. 




Fig. 12. Species richness of the family Kinosternidae on North and Central America. 




Fig. 13. Species richness of the family Kinosternidae on South America. 




Fig. 14. Species richness of the family Platysternidae on Asia. 



10 




Fig. 15. Species richness of the family Testudinidae on Africa. 



11 




Fig. 16. Species richness of the family Testudinidae on Asia. 



n h 


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Fig. 17. Species richness of the family Testudinidae on Europe. 



12 




Fig. 18. Species richness of the family Testudinidae on North America. 




Fig. 19. Species richness of the family Testudinidae on South America, excluding the 
Galapagos Islands where species richness never exceeds one. 



13 




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o 

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o 



o 

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Fig. 21. Species richness of the family Trionychidae on New Guinea. 




Fig. 22. Species richness of the family Trionychidae in the Middle East. 



15 




Fig. 23. Species richness of the family Trionychidae on Africa. 




Fig. 24. Species richness of the family Trionychidae on North America. 



16 




Fig. 25. Species richness of the family Chelidae on South America. 



17 




Fig. 26. Species richness of the family Chelidae on Australia. 



18 




Fig. 27. Species richness of the family Pelomedusidae on South America. 




Fig. 28. Species richness of the family Pelomedusidae on Africa. 



L 



HO 



CHECKLIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY (1960-85) 
OF THE 
VENEZUELAN HERPETOFAUNA 




JAIME E. PEFAUR 

Ecologia Animal 
Facultad de Ciencias 
Universidad de Los Andes 




SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL INFORMATION 
SERVICE 
NO. 89 



1992 



SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETO LOGICAL 
INFORMATION 
SERVICE 



The SHIS series publishes and distributes translations, 
bibliographies, indices, and similar items judged useful 
to individuals interested in the biology of amphibians 
and reptiles, but unlikely to be published in the normal 
technical journals. Single copies are. distributed free 
to interested individuals. Libraries, herpetological 
associations, and research- laboratories are invited to 
exchange their publications with the Division of 
Amphibians and*Reptiles. 

We wish to encourage individuals to share their 
bibliographies, translations, etc. with other 
herpetologists through the SHIS series. If you have 
such items please contact George Zug for instructions on 
preparation and submission. Contributors receive 50 
free copies. 

Please address all requests for copies and inquiries to 
George Zug, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, 
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington DC 20560 USA. Please include 
a self-addressed mailing label with requests. 



INTRODUCTION 

The Venezuelan herpetofauna is fairly large compared to any 
other belonging to a tropical country of similar area. The 
diversity is due to both a complex physiography and an active 
speciation process. 

The present checklist includes, to the best of my knowledge, 
all species recorded for Venezuela and described through December 
1990. Of the 490 recorded taxa, 15% have been described in the last 
two decades. The process of description could be stronger if a 
checklist were available; however, there is no such list. Because 
many additional species are known but not described and many 
additional ones awaiting discovery, I offer this checklist as a 
base line reference tool, realizing that it will require 
continuing modifications to keep it current with new research 
discoveries and systematic rearrangements. 

In spite of their usefulness, only two other similar checklists 
are available for South American (Ecuador - Miyata, 1982, SHIS 54: 
1-70; Chile - Veloso & Navarro, 1988, Bol . Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. 
Torino 6 (2) :481-539) . 

The accompanying bibliography covers the period 1960-1985, 
attempting to include the fully diversity of topics dealing with 
the Venezuelan herpetofauna. Undoubtedly, some references have 
been involuntarily omitted, for which I apologize. References 
prior to 1960 are covered by Duellman (1979), Duellman & Trueb 
(1985), Hoogmoed (1973), Medem (1981, 1983), Pritchard & Trebbau 
(1984), Rivero (1961), Roze (1966), and Vanzolini (1977, 1978) 
books. We recommend readers to these latter references for the 
older literature. The 1985 limit was selected because after that 
year the economical situation in Venezuela forced our libraries to 
discontinue many subscription and cease or delay the 
publication of in-country periodicals. Thus since then, 
bibliographic searches are a haphazard affair. 

I hope that this list and bibliography will help the young 
generations of Venezuelan (and others) herpetologists to more 
expeditiously begin their studies of this interesting vertebrate 
fauna. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Partial or full drafts of this checklist were read by Adao J. 
Cardoso, James R. Dixon, William E. Duellman, W. Ronald Heyer, 
Marinus S. Hoogmoed, Paul M. Kornacker, R. Abdem Lancini, Ismael 
Muhoz, Juan A. Rivero, Ivan Sazima, and Paulo E. Vanzolini. All 
made valuable comments and suggestions that improved greatly the 
list, and all deserve my gratitude. However, any mistakes or 
omissions are my exclusive responsibility. I recognize that there 
were several instances when different systematic approaches were 
recommended for a taxonomic group; in those cases, I made the 
decision on which approach to adopt. 

Many people and institutions provided help or furnished 
information, but I want in particular to express my thanks to the 
Grupo de Ecologia Animal and the Library of the Faculty of 
Sciences, Universidad de Los Andes. Nancy M. Sierra help me 
through the whole process of collecting bibliographic references. 
Also, Pedro Hidalgo, Robinson Perez, John E. Simmons, Pedro 
Durant, Maria Jose Praderio, John D. Lynch and George R. Zug were 
helpful in all or part of the elaboration of this work. 

Several manuscript versions were typed by Ana Isabel Osorio. 
The final draft was typed into a computer by Belkis Rivas. My 
thanks to them as well. 

This study was partially funded by CDCHT-ULA Projects TC-51- 
79/89 and TC-02-90, and by CONICIT Project PI-011-90. 



AMPHIBIA 
A N U R A 

BUFONIDAE 

Atelopus carbonerensis Rivero 1972 

A. cruciger cruciger (Lichtenstein & Martens 1856) 

A. mucubajiensis Rivero 1974 

A. oxyrhynchus Boulenger 1903 

A. pinangoi Rivero 1980 

A. sorianoi La Marca 1983 
Bufo ceratophrys Boulanger 1882 

B. granulosus barbouri Gallardo 1965 
B. g. beebei Gallardo 1965 

B. g. humboldti Gallardo 1965 

B. g. merianae Gallardo 1965 

B. guttatus Schneider 1799 

B. marinus (Linnaeus 1758) 

B. nasicus Werner 1903 

B. sternosignatus Gunther 1858 

B. typhonius alatus Thominot 1884 

B. t. typhonius (Linnaeus 1758) 
Oreophrynella huberi Diego-Aransay & Gorzula 1987 
O. macconnelli Boulenger 1900 

0. guelchii guelchii (Boulenger 1895) 

CENTROLENIDAE 

Centrolenella altitudinalis Rivero 1968 

C. andina Rivero 1968 

C. anthisthenesi Goin 1963 

C. buckleyi venezuelensis Rivero 1968 

C. duranti Rivero 1985 

C. estevesi Rivero 1968 

C. fleischmanni (Boettger 1893) 

C. fragilis Rivero 1985 

C. lentiginosa Rivero 1985 

C. loreocarinata Rivero 1985 

C. orientalis Rivero 1968 

C. ostracodermoides Rivero 1985 

C. pallida Rivero 1985 

C. pleurolineata Rivero 1985 

C. pulidoi Rivero 1968 

C. revocata Rivero 1985 



DENDROBATIDAE 

Colostethus alboguttatus (Boulenger 1903) 

C. bromelicola (Test 1956) 

C. brunneus (Cope 1887) 

C. collaris (Boulenger 1912) 

C. dunni (Rivero 1961) 

C. duranti Pefaur 1985 

C. haydeeae Rivero 1976 

C. herminae (Boettger 1893) 

C. humilis Rivero 1978 

C. leopardalis Rivero 1976 

C. mandelorum (Schmidt 1932) 

C. mayorgai Rivero 1978 

C. meridensis Dole & Durant 1972 

C. molinarii La Marca 1985 

C. neblina (Test 1956) 

C. oblitteratus Rivero 1984 

C. orostoma Rivero 1976 

C. riveroi (Donoso - Barros 1964) 

C. sanmartini Rivero, Langone & Prigioni 1986 

C. saltuensis Rivero 1978 

C. serranus Pefaur 1985 

C. shrevei (Rivero 1961) 

C. trinitatis (Garman 1887) 

Dendrobates leucomelas Steindachner 1864 

Epipedobates pictus (Tschudi 1838) 

Minyobates steyermarki (Rivero 1971) 

HYLIDAE 

Aparasphenodon venezolanus (Mertens 1950) 
Flectonotus fitzgeraldi Parker 1934 

F. pygmaeus (Boettger 1893) 
Gastrotheca helenae Dunn 1944 

G. nicefori Gaige 1933 

G. ovifera (Weinland 1854) 

G. walkeri Duellman 1980 

Hyla albomarginata Spix 1824 

H. albopunctata Spix 1824 

H. alemani Rivero 1964 

H. battersbyi Rivero 1961 

H. benitezi Rivero 1961 

H. boans (Linnaeus 1758) 

H. crepitans Wied 1824 

H. geographica Spix 1824 

H. granosa Boulenger 1882 

H. jahni Rivero 1961 

H. labialis meridensis Rivero 1961 



H. lanciformis guerreroi Rivero 1971 

H. lascinia Rivero 1969 

H. lemai Rivero 1972 

H. loveridgei Rivero 1961 

H. luteocellata Roux 1927 

H. marmorata (Laurenti 1768) 

H. microcephala misera Werner 1903 

H. minuscula Rivero 1971 

H. minuta Peters 1872 

H. multifasciata Gunther 1858 

H. pelidna Duellman 1989 

H. platydactyla Boulenger 1905 

H. punctata punctata (Schneider 1799) 

H. sibleszi Rivero 1972 

H. vigilans Solano 1971 

Ololygon baumgardneri (Rivero 1961) 

O. boesemani (Goin 1966) 

O. boulengeri (Cope 1887) 

O. danae Duellman 1986 

O. exigua Duellman 1986 

O. garbei (Miranda-Ribeiro 1926) 

O. nebulosa Spix 1824 

O. rostrata (Peters 1863) 

O. rubra rubra (Laurenti 1768) 

O. trilineata Hoogmoed & Gorzula 1979 

O. x-signata (Spix 1824) 

Osteocephalus rodriguezi (Rivero 1968) 

O. taurinus Steindachner 1862 

Phrynohyas venulosa (Laurenti 1768) 

Phyllomedusa bicolor (Boddaert 1772) 

P. hypocondrialis hypocondrialis (Daudin 1803) 

P. medinae Funkhouser 1962 

P. trinitatis Mertens 1926 

Sphaenorhynchus lacteus (Daudin 1801) 

Stefania evansi (Boulenger 1904) 

S. ginesi Rivero 1966 

S. goini Rivero 1966 

S. marahuaquensis (Rivero 1961) 

S. riae Duellman & Hoogmoed 1984 

ALLOPHRYNIDAE 

Allophryne ruthveni Gaige 1926 

LEPTODACTYLIDAE 

Adelophryne gutturosa Hoogmoed & Lescure 1984 
Adenomera andreae (Muller 1923) 
A. hylaedactyla (Cope 1868) 



Ceratophrys calcarata Boulenger 1890 

C. cornuta (Linnaeus 1758) 
Dischidodactylus duidensis (Rivero 1968) 

D. colonnelloi Ayarzaguena 1983 
Eleutherodactylus anotis Walker & Test 1955 

E. bicumulus (Peters 1863) 

E. boconoensis Rivero & Mayorga 1973 

E. briceni (Boulenger 1903) 

E. chlorosoma Rivero 1982 

E. colostichos La Marca & Smith 1982 

E. cornutus (Jimenez de la Espada 1871) 

E. johnstonei Barbour 1914 

E. ginesi (Rivero 1964) 

E. lancinii Donoso-Barros 1968 

E. lentiginosus Rivero 1982 

E. marmoratus (Boulenger 1900) 

E. maussi (Boettger 1893) 

E. melanoproctus Rivero 1982 

E. mondolfii Rivero 1982 

E. nicefori Cochran & Goin 1970 

E. orocostalis Rivero 1961 

E. paramerus Rivero 1982 

E. pleurostriatus Rivero 1982 

E. prolixodiscus Lynch 1978 

E. pulidoi Rivero 1982 

E. pulvinatus Rivero 1968 

E. racenisi Rivero 1961 

E. reticulatus Walker & Test 1955 

E. rozei Rivero 1961 

E. stenodiscus Walker & Test 1955 

E. terraebolivaris Rivero 1961 

E. tubernasus Rivero 1982 

E. turumiguirensis Rivero 1961 

E. urichi urichi (Boettger 1894) 

E. vanadise La Marca 1984 

E. vilarsi (Melin 1941) 

E. williamsi Rivero 1961 

Leptodactylus bolivianus Boulenger 1898 

L. fragilis (Brocchi 1877) 

L. fuscus (Schneider 1799) 

L. knudseni Heyer 1972 

L. labyrinthicus (Spix 1824) 

L. longirostris Boulenger 1882 

L. macrosternum Miranda-Ribeiro 1926 

L. mystaceus (Spix 1824) 

L. pentadactylus (Laurenti 1768) 

L. poecilochilus (Cope 1862) 

L. rhodomystax Boulenger 1883 

L. riveroi Heyer & Pyburn 1983 



L. rugosus Noble 1923 

L. wagneri (Peters 1862) 

Lithodytes lineatus (Schneider 1799) 

Physalaemus enesefae Heatwole, Solano & Heatwole 1965 

P. fischeri (Boulenger 1896) 

P. pustulosus ruthveni (Netting 1930) 

Pleurodema brachyops (Cope 1868) 

Pseudopaludicola boliviana Parker 1927 

P. llanera Lynch 1989 

P. pusilla (Ruthven 1916) 

MICROHYLIDAE 

Adelastes hylonomus Zweifel 1986 
Elachistocleis ovalis (Schneider 1979) 
E. surinamensis (Daudin 1802) 

Otophryne robusta robusta Boulenger 1900 
0. r. steyermarki Rivero 1967 

PI PI DAE 

Pipa arrabali Izecksohn 1976 
P. parva Ruthven & Gaige 192 3 
P. pipa (Linnaeus 1758) 

RAN I DAE 

Rana palmipes Spix 1824 

PSEUDIDAE 

Pseudis paradoxa caribensis Gallardo 1961 

C A U D A T A 

PLETHODONTIDAE 

Bolitoglossa borburata Trapido 1942 

B. orestes Brame & Wake 1962 

GYMNOPHIONA 

CAECILIAIDAE 

Caecilia f lavopunctata Roze & Solano 1963 

C. gracilis Shaw 1802 

C. subnigricans Dunn 1942 
C. tentaculata Linnaeus 1758 



8 

POTOMOT YPHLI DAE 
Potomotyphlus kaupii (Berthold 1859) 

RH I N ATREMAT I DAE 

Epicrionops nigrus (Dunn 1942) 

SIPHONOPIDAE 

Microcaecilia rabei (Roze & Solano 1963) 
Siphonops annulatus (Mikan 1820) 

TYPHLONECTIDAE 

Nectocaecilia haydee (Roze 1963) 
Typhlonectes venezuelense Fuhrmann 1914 

REPTILIA 
TESTUDINES 

PELOMEDUSIDAE 

Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix 1824) 

P. expansa (Schweigger 1812) 

P. unifilis Troschel 1848 

p. vogli Muller 1935 

Peltocephalus dumerilianus (Schweigger 1812) 

CHE LI DAE 

Chelus fimbriatus (Schneider 1783) 

Phrynops (Phrynops) geoffroanus (Schweigger 1812) 

p. (Mesoclemmys) gibbus (Schweigger 1812) 

p. (Batrachemys) nasutus (Schweigger 1812) 

P. zuliae Pritchard & Trebbau 1984 

Platemys platycephala (Schneider 1792) 

EMYDIDAE 

Rhinoclemmys diademata (Mertens 1954) 

R. punctularia flammigera Paolillo 1985 

R. p. punctularia (Daudin 1801) 

Trachemys scripta callirostris (Gray 1855) 

T. s. chichiriviche Pritchard & Trebbau 1984 



TESTUDINIDAE 

Geochelone (Chelonoidis) carbonaria (Spix 1824) 

G. denticulata (Linnaeus 1766) 

KINOSTERNIDAE 

Kinosternon scorpioides scorpioides (Linnaeus 1766) 

DERMOCHELYIDAE 

Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus 1766) 

CHELONIIDAE 

Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus 1758) 

Caretta caretta (Linnaeus 1758) 

Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata (Linnaeus 1766) 

Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholz 1829) 

CROCODYLIA 

CROCODYLIDAE 

Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier 1807) 

C. intermedius Graves 1819 

ALLIGATORIDAE 

Caiman crocodilus crocodilus Linnaeus 1758 
C. c. fuscus (Cope 1868) 

Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Cuvier 1807) 
P. trigonatus (Schneider 1801) 

AMPHISBAENIA 

AMPHISBAENIDAE 

Amphisbaena alba Linnaeus 1758 

A. fuliginosa fuliginosa Linnaeus 1758 

A. f. varia Laurenti 1768 

A. rozei Lancini 1963 

A. spurrelli Boulenger 1915 

Mesobaena huebneri Mertens 1925 



10 

LACERTILIA 

SCINCIDAE 

Mabuya bistriata (Spix 1825) 

M. croizati Horton 1973 

M. ficta Reboucas-Spieker 1981 

GEKKONIDAE 

Coleodactylus amazonicus (Anderson 1918) 

C. septentrionalis Vanzolini 1980 

Gonatodes albogularis albogularis (Dumeril & Bibron 1836) 

G. annularis Boulenger 1887 

G. antillensis (Van Lidth de Jeude 1887) 

G. bodinii Rivero-Blanco 1964 

G. cecil iae Donoso- Barros 1966 

G. concinnatus (O'Shaughnessy 1881) 

G. falconensis Shreve 1947 

G. humeralis (Guichenot 1855) 

G. ocellatus (Gray 1831) 

G. petersi Donoso- Barros 1967 

G. seigliei Donoso-Barros 1966 

G. taniae Roze 1963 

G. vittatus (Lichtenstein 1856) 

Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnes 1818) 

H. palaichthus Kluge 1969 

Phyllodactylus dixoni Rivero-Blanco & Lancini 1967 

P. ventralis O'Shaughnessy 1875 

Pseudogonatodes guianensis Parker 1935 

p. lunulatus (Roux 1927) 

Sphaerodactylus molei Boettger 1894 

Thecadactylus rapicaudus (Houttuyn 1782) 

IGUANIDAE 

Anolis auratus Daudin 1802 

A. chrysolepis Dumeril & Bibron 1837 

A. frenatus Cope 1899 

A. fuscoauratus klugeri Roux 1929 

A. gibbiceps Cope 1864 

A. jacare Boulenger 1903 

A. onca (O'Shaughnessy 1875) 

A. punctatus Daudin 1802 

A. roguet (Bonnaterre 1789) 

A. sagrei Dumeril & Bibron 1837 

A. sguamulatus Peters 1863 

A. transversalis Dumeril 1851 

A. tropidogaster Hallowell 1857 



11 



Basiliscus basiliscus barbouri Ruthven 1914 

B. b. basiliscus (Linnaeus 1758) 

Iguana iguana iguana (Linnaeus 1758) 

Phenacosaurus nicefori Dunn 1944 

Plica plica (Linnaeus 1758) 

P. umbra umbra (Linnaeus 1758) 

Polychrus marmoratus (Linnaeus 1758) 

Tropidodactylus onca (O'Shaughnessy 1875) 

Tropidurus bogerti Roze 1958 

T. hispidus (Spix 1825) 

Uracentron werneri Mertens 1925 

Uranoscodon superciliosum (Linnaeus 1758) 

TEIIDAE 

Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus 1758) 

A. bifrontata Cope 1862 

Anadia bitaeniata Boulenger 1903 

A. blakei Schmidt 1932 

A. bogotensis (Peters 1862) 

A. brevif rontalis (Boulenger 1903) 

A. hobarti La Marca & Garcia-Perez 1990 

A. marmorata (Gray 1846) 

A. pamplonensis Dunn 1944 

A. steyeri Nieden 1914 

Arthrosaura reticulata (O'Shaughnessy 1881) 
Bachia bicolor (Cope 1896) 

B. flavescens flavescens (Bonnaterre 1789) 

B. f. schlegeli (Dumeril & Bibron 1839) 

B. guianensis Hoogmoed & Dixon 1977 

B. heteropa lineata Boulenger 1903 

B. h. marcelae Donoso-Barros & Garrido 1964 

B. h. trinitatis (Barbour 1914) 

B. monodactyla (Daudin 1802) 
Cercosaura ocellata ocellata Wagler 1830 
Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus (Linnaeus 1758) 

C. 1. nigricolor Peters 1873 
C. gramivagus McCrystal & Dixon 1987 
Euspondylus acutirostris (Peters 1862) 

E. phelpsi Lancini 1968 

Gymnophthalmus speciosus (Hallowell 1861) 
G. underwoodi Grant 1958 

Kentropyx borckianus Peters 1862 
K. calcarata Spix 1825 
K. striata striata Daudin 1802 
Leposoma percarinatum (Muller 1923) 
Neusticurus bicarinatus (Linnaeus 1758) 
N. racenisi Roze 1958 

N. rudis Boulenger 1900 



12 



N. tatei (Burt & Burt 1931) 

Prionodactylus ampuedai (Lancini 1968) 
Proctoporus achlyens Uzzell 1958 
p. luctuosus (Peters 1862) 

Ptychoglossus kugleri Roux 1927 
p. brevifrontalis (Boulenger 1903) 

Riolama leucostictus (Boulenger 1900) 
Tretioscincus bifasciatus (Dumeril 1851) 
Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus 1758) 

SERPENTES 

BO I DAE 

Boa constrictor constrictor Linnaeus 1758 

Corallus caninus (Linnaeus 1758) 

C. enydris enydris (Linnaeus 1758) 

C. e. cooki Gray 1842 

Epicrates cenchria cenchria (Linnaeus 1758) 

E. c. maurus Gray 1849 

Eunectes murinus gigas (Latreille 1802) 

ANILIIDAE 

Anilius scytale phelpsorum Roze 1958 

LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE 

Leptotyphlops af finis (Boulenger 1884) 

L. amazonicus Orejas-Miranda 1969 

L. dimidiatus (Jan 1861) 

L. goudotti goudotti (Dumeril & Bibron 1854) 

L. macrolepis (Peters 1857) 

L. septemstriatus (Schneider 1801) 

L. tenellus Klauber 1939 

ANOMALEPIDAE 

Helminthophis f lavoterminatus (Peters 1857) 
Liotyphlops albirostris (Peters 1881) 

TYPHLOPIDAE 

Typhlops brongersmianus Vanzolini 1972 

T. lehneri Roux 1926 

T. minuisquamus Dixon & Hendricks 1979 

T. reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758) 



13 



COLUBRIDAE 

Atractus badius (Boie 1827) 

A. duidensis Roze 1961 

A. elaps (Gunther 1858) 

A. emigdioi Gonzalez-Sponga 1971 

A. erythromelas Boulenger 1903 

A. fuliginosus (Hallowell 1845) 

A. insipidus Roze 1961 

A. lancinii Roze 1967 

A. major Boulenger 1894 

A. mariselae Lancini 1969 

A. riveroi Roze 1961 

A. steyermarki Roze 1958 

A. trilineatus Wagler 1828 

A. univittatum (Jan 1862) 

A. ventrimaculatus Boulenger 1905 

A. vittatus Boulenger 1894 

Chironius carinatus (Linnaeus 1758) 

C. exoletus Linnaeus 1758 

C. fuscus fuscus (Linnaeus 1758) 

C. monticola Roze 1952 

C. multiventris multiventris Schmidt & Walker 1943 

C. m. septentrionalis Wiest 1978 

C. scurrulus (Wagler 1824) 
Clelia clelia clelia (Daudin 1803) 
Dendrophidion dendrophis (Schlegel 1837) 

D. nuchalis (Peters 1864) 
Dipsas catesbyi (Sentzen 1796) 

D. copei (Gunther 1872) 

D. latifrontalis (Boulenger 1905) 

D. pavonina Schlegel 1837 

D. perijanensis (Aleman 1953) 

D. variegata variegata (Dumeril, Bibron fie Dumeril 1854) 

Drymarchon corais corais (Boie 1827) 

D. c. margaritae Roze 1959 

D. c. melanurus (Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854) 
Drymobius rhombifer (Gunther 1860) 

Drymoluber dichrous (Peters 1863) 

Erythrolamprus aesculapii aesculapii (Linnaeus 1758) 

E. bizona Jan 1863 

E. pseudocorallus Roze 1959 

Helicops angulatus (Linnaeus 1758) 

H. hagmanni Roux 1910 

H. hogei Lancini 1964 

H. pastazae Shreve 1934 

H. scalaris Jan 1865 

Hydrodynastes bicinctus bicinctus (Hermann 1804) 

Hydrops triangularis venezuelensis Roze 1957 



14 



Imantodes cenchoa (Linnaeus 1758) 

Lampropeltis triangulum (Cope 1860) 

Leptodeira annulata annulata (Linnaeus 1758) 

L. a. ashmeadii (Hallowell 1845) 

L. septentrionalis ornata (Bocourt 1884) 

Leptophis ahaetulla coeruleodorsus Oliver 1942 

L. a. copei Oliver 1942 

L. a. occidentalis (Gunther 1859) 

Liophis breviceps breviceps Cope 1860 

L. b. canaimus Roze 1957 

L. cobellus cobellus (Linnaeus 1758) 

L. c. trebbaui Roze 1958 

L. epinephalus opisthotaenius (Boulenger 1908) 

L. lineatus (Linnaeus 1758) 

L. melanotus melanotus (Shaw 1802) 

L. poecilogyrus (Wied 1825) 

L. reginae semilineatus (Wagler 1824) 

L. r. zweifeli Roze 1959 

L. typhlus typhlus (Linnaeus 1758) 

L. williamsi (Roze 1958) 

Masticophis mentovarius centralis (Roze 1953) 

M. m. suborbitalis (Peters 1868) 

Mastigodryas amarali (Stuart 1938) 

M. bifossatus striatus (Amaral 1931) 

M. boddaerti boddaerti (Sentzen 1796) 

M. pleei (Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854) 

Ninia atrata (Hallowell 1845) 

Oxybelis aeneus Wagler in Spix 1824 

0. argenteus (Daudin 1803) 

0. fulgidus (Daudin 1803) 

Oxyrhopus petola petola (Linnaeus 1758) 

0. p. digitalis (Reuss 1834) 

0. trigeminus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854 

0. venezuelanus Shreve 1947 

Philodryas olfersii herbens (Wied 1825) 

P. viridissimus (Linnaeus 1758) 

Phimophis guianensis (Troschel in Schomburgh 1848) 

Pseudoboa coronata Schneider 1801 

P. neuwieddi (Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854) 

Pseudoeryx plicatilis plicatilis (Linnaeus 1758) 

Pseustes poecilonotus polylepis (Peters 1867) 

P. sulphureus sulphureus (Wagler in Spix 1824) 

Rhadinaea brevirostris (Peters 1863) 

R. multilineata (Peters 1859) 

Rhinobothryum bovalli Andersson 192 6 

Sibon nebulata nebulata (Linnaeus 1758) 

Spilotes pullatus pullatus (Linnaeus 1758) 

Stenorrhina degenhardtii ocellata Jan 1876 

Tantilla melanocephala (Linnaeus 1758) 



15 



T. semicincta (Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854) 

Thamnodynastes chimanta Roze 1958 

T. pallidus (Linnaeus 1758) 

T. strigilis (Thunberg 1787) 

Tripanurgos corapressus (Daudin 1803) 

Umbrivaga mertensi Roze 1964 

Xenodon rabdocephalus (Wied 1824) 

X. severus (Linnaeus 1758) 

ELAPIDAE 

Leptomicrurus collaris breviventris Roze & Bernarl-Carlo 1987 

Micrurus dissoleucus dissoleucus (Cope 1860) 

M. d. meridensis Roze 1989 

M. dumerilii carinicaudus Schmidt 1936 

M. d. venezuelensis Roze 1989 

M. hemprichii hemprichii (Jan 1858) 

M. h. ortoni Schmidt 1953 

M. isozonus (Cope 1860) 

M. lemniscatus diutius Burger 1955 

M. 1. helleri Schmidt & Schmidt 192 5 

M. mipartitus semipartitus (Jan 1858) 

M. psyches psyches (Daudin 1803) 

M. p. remotus Roze 1987 

M. spixii obscurus (Jan in Jan & Sordelli 1872) 

M. surinamensis nattereri Schmidt 1952 

VI PERI DAE 



Bothrops atrox atrox (Linnaeus 1758) 

B. a. colombiensis (Hallowell 1845) 

B. bilineatus bilineatus (Wied 1825) 

B. b. smaragdinus Hoge 1966 

B. brazili Hoge 1953 

B. lansbergii rozei Peters 1959 

B. medusa Sternfeld 1920 

B. schlegelii (Berthold 1846) 

B. taeniatus lichenosus Roze 1958 

B. t. taeniatus Wagler 1824 

B. venezuelensis Sandner-Montilla 1952 
Crotalus durissus cumanensis Humboltd 1811 

C. d. pifanorum Sandner-Montilla 1980 
C. d. ruruima Hoge 1965 

C. vegrandis Klauber 1941 
Lachesis muta muta (Linnaeus 1766) 



16 



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A REVIEW OF TECHNIQUES 

FOR 

MARKING SNAKES 




MATHIAS LANG 

Department of Herpetology 
Royal Belgium Institute of Natural Sciences 




SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL INFORMATION 
SERVICE 
NO, 90 



1992 



SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL 
INFORMATION 
SERVICE 



The SHIS series publishes and distributes translations, 
bibliographies, indices, and similar items judged useful 
to individuals interested in the biology of amphibians 
and reptiles, but unlikely to be published in the normal 
technical journals. Single copies are distributed free 
to interested individuals. Libraries, herpetological 
associations, and research laboratories are invited to 
exchange their publications with the Division of 
Amphibians and Reptiles. 

We wish to encourage individuals to share their 
bibliographies, translations, etc. with other 
herpetologists through the SHIS series. If you have 
such items please contact George Zug for instructions on 
preparation and submission. Contributors receive 50 
free copies. 

Please address all requests for copies and inquiries to 
George Zug, Division of Amphibians' and Reptiles, 
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington DC' 20560 USA. Please include 
a self-addressed mailing label with requests. 



COVER ILLUSTRATION. Radiotrackers ' ideal snake with a built- 
in antenna; drawn by Stephanie Ersek. 



INTRODUCTION 

Snakes present a serious difficulty to ecologists wishing to 
study them in the field. Due to their secretive behaviour and 
cryptic coloration, they are generally difficult to find, and 
because of their solitary lifestyle, they are usually only found 
as isolated individuals. Whereas turtles, lizards, and crocodilians 
lend themselves easily to marking methods, snakes are the most 
difficult reptiles to mark effectively for field identification. 
Nevertheless, researchers have ingenuously developed a variety of 
techniques for marking snakes. No less than twenty different 
methods have been used with more than fifty snake species 
(Appendix) . These techniques fall into several categories: 1) 
scale-clipping; 2) tagging; 3) painting/coloring; 4) tattooing, 5) 
branding; 6) recording of integumentary and scale patterns; 7) 
incising; and radiotelemetry . These are summarized in a subsequent 
section. 

An ideal marking method for snakes should satisfy most of the 
following criteria, as enumerated by Lewke and Stroud (1974) and 
Ricker (1956). It should: 1) be as free of stress and pain as 
possible; 2) not affect the mortality rate of the animals; 3) 
afford minimal opportunity for infection; 4) not affect behaviour; 
5) not inhibit normal movement; 6) not inhibit the shedding 
process; 7) be permanent or at least long-lasting; 8) be easily 
read to identify accurately individuals; 9) be adaptable to all 
sizes of animals; 10) be easily employed in the field or laboratory 
situation; and 11) involve equipment and materials that are easily 
made or obtainable at a minimal cost. 

Discussions of preferred methods of marking can be found in 
Brown and Parker (1976b), Clark (1971), Ferner (1979), Fitch 

(1949A; 1987), Kroll et al. (1973), Lewke and Stroud (1974), 
McGinnis (1967), Pendlebury (1972), Pough (1970), Reinert and 
Cundall (1982), Schmidt and Davies (1941), Spellerberg and Prestt 

(1978), Swingland (1978), Turner (1977), Weary (1969) and Woodbury 

(1948; 1956) . 

Considering the aforementioned references, enough information 
is available for ecologists to choose an effective tagging method 
for their investigations according to their budget and the 
hypotheses to be investigated. To permit ready access and 
evaluation of the different methodologies, I offer the following 
summaries of the various marking techniques along with the 
pertinent literature. 



2 

MARKING PROTOCOLS 

Scale-Clipping 

Subcaudal clipping ( 1) . 

The first method ever used to mark snakes for an ecological 
study was devised by Blanchard and Finster (1933). It consisted of 
completely removing three subcaudal scales with a pair of sharp 
scissors, using a code to designate those scales clipped. By 
counting caudad from the cloacal plate, and placing the left and 
right subcaudals on the respective sides of a dash, a typical code 
of "2,5-4" represents the second and fifth subcaudal on the left 
and the fourth subcaudal on the right as being marked. 

This method or variations thereof have been used, at least 
until the recent advances in radiotelemetry, for the past fifty 
years by the overwhelming majority of ecologists. Published reports 
indicate that close to 50,000 snakes have been marked by subcaudal 
clippings. It has been employed in studies by Blaesing (1979), 
Blanchard et al. (1979), Carpenter (1952), Fitch (1949b, 1958), 
Fitch and Fleet (1970), Fitch and Glading (1947), Fukada (1959; 
1960; 1978), Parker (1974), Reynolds and Scott (1982), Siebert 
(1950), Siebert and Hagen (1947), Test et al. (1966), and Tinkle 
(1957) . 

Although Blanchard and Finster (1933) warned that scales only 
partially removed would regenerate through time, subseguent studies 
demonstrated that certain species have the ability to completely 
regenerate even entirely removed subcaudals. Calstrom and Edelstam 
(1946) were the first to demonstrate this, and further noted how 
difficult and harmful subcaudal clipping was with juveniles. Conant 
(1948) described a zoo specimen of Elaphe obsoleta in which 
regeneration obliterated the original marks after five years. 
Regeneration was further verified by Fitch (1982), who studied 
twelve species of snakes over a 30 year period (22,000 individuals 
marked) . He showed that regeneration of clipped scales was more 
rapid and complete in Elaphe obsoleta than in any other species 
that he studied. After a few years, many clipped scales were 
indistinguishable from natural injuries (Fitch, 1963a) . Other 
species also possess good regeneration. For example, Diadophis 
punctatus are scared by bites from predators, and these scars are 
indistinguishable from those of clipping after two or three years 
(Fitch, 1975) . Similarly, Fitch (1963b) observed regeneration in 
some Coluber constrictor after two or three years. 



Ventral clipping (2) . 

Woodbury (1951) was the first to use ventral scales. He 
clipped a portion of the ventral scale on either side, designating 
the right side with a capital letter and the left side with a^pmall 
letter. Scales were lettered craniad from the anal plate, ana sex 
was indicated by M or F. Thus a code combination of "DaM" referred 
to a male snake with a clipped fourth ventral on the right and the 
first ventral on the left. 

Brown and Parker (1976b) modified Woodbury's methodology to 
fulfill the eight criteria of Lewke and Stroud (1974) for a good 
marking method. The modified method is claimed to be satisfactory 
for at least four years and was used by Brown (1973), Brown and 
Parker (1974; 1982), Henderson et al. (1980), Jacob and Painter 
(1980) and Parker and Brown (1973; 1974a-b) . The Brown and Parker 
protocol remove half of a ventral in combination of one to three 
clips with a total of 989 unique combinations. Ventrals are counted 
anteriorly from the anal plate on the left side in units from 1- 
9; on the right side they are counted in series of 10 ' s (10-90), 
100' s (100-900) , and 1000 's (if necessary) . A snake whose belly was 
clipped on the left side of ventral nine and the right side of 
ventral three and eleven would be number 239. Regeneration does not 
appear to occur as readily in the ventrals as in the subcaudals. 
No ill effects were noticed in markings of more than 1000 Coluber 
constrictor (Brown, 1973) . This methodology appears superior for 
scale-clipping, although some ambiguity may occur such as 
misidentif ication of individual marks (Fitch, 1987) . 

Ventral and subcaudal clipping (3) . 

Fitch (1958, 1960) proposed a combination of subcaudals and 
ventral scale clippings. The first twenty subcaudals allow 362 
unique combinations. A typical code of "U 5L 2R" represents 
markings on the fifth left and the second right subcaudals. 
Ventrals are used to indicate the next series of 362 marks. 
Counting craniad from the anal plate, "G 1L" designates the first 
ventral on the left or "G 1R" the first right ventral, etc. Fitch 
employed this technique in his later studies (1963a, b; 1965; 1975; 
1982), and it was also used by Clark (1970) and Piatt (1969). 

Another variant of scale clipping was devised by Clark (1971) . 
Only two marks are necessary with the designation of a basal 
starting point. For example, "BL-2L 3R" indicated a base mark on 
the left and the subsequent ventrals second left and third right 
are marked. To improve reliability, a scale is removed from the 
first dorsal scale row immediately adjacent to the basal marked 
ventral . 



Henderson (1974), Lang (1969), and Saint-Girons (1964) used 
combined clipping methodologies, but did not provide full details 
on the numbering protocol. 

The disadvantages of all clipping methods are the time 
reguired to mark each snake, the freguently drawing blood and 
possibility of infection, and the difficulty in marking small 
snakes (Weary, 1969) . 

Most recent researchers favor the combined ventral-subcaudal 
methodology of Prestt (1971) and Brown and Parker (1984) . This 
method has been used successfully in studies on the population 
dynamics of colubrids and viperids (e.g. Brown and Parker, 1984; 
Feaver, 1977; Parker and Brown, 1974 a,b, 1980; Prestt, 1971; 
Spellerberg and Phelps, 1977) . 

Tags 

Metal tags (4) . 

Hirth (1966) was the first to attach tags to snakes. He used 
uniguely numbered stainless steel tags clamped to the corner of 
the mouth. Fortunately, this location has not been used 
subseguently. Voris et al . (1983) attached numbered metal tags to 
the tail tips of sea snakes. He discontinued the tagging when it 
became apparent that the tags collected debris, wore holes in the 
tails, and were often lost. 

Plastic plugs (5) . 

Pough (1970) described the use of colored plastic plugs or 
serially numbered metal tags attached to the tail via a buttoner 
device. The technigue is presumably a guick and permanent method 
of marking snakes. The tags were partially inserted into the caudal 
musculature through the lateral subcaudal scales. Those inserted 
into ventral scales fell off. Plugs cannot be attached to snakes 
smaller than 2 50 mm SV. During Pough' s studies there was no 
evidence of infection nor any indication that the plug interferes 
with shedding or locomotion. 

Plastic disk (6) . 

Pendlebury (1972) initiated the attachment of colored disks 
to rattlesnake's rattles. A pair of disks are sewn on either side 
of the basal rattle segment. With the use of a pair of disks in ten 
color combinations 100 specimens can be uniguely marked. Two pairs 
of disks on each snake allows 10,000 unigue combinations. This 
method, although limited to studies of rattlesnakes, has been used 
successfully by JACOB and Painter (1980) , Reinert and Kodrich 
(1982), Stark (1984) and Brown et al. (1984). 



Plastic tag/colored beads (7) . 

Thin, yellow plastic tags were successfully used by Voris et 
al. (1983) to mark sea snakes; these tags were embedded 
subcutaneously in front of the tail on the right side of the body. 
Similar red tags hooked through the tail were found to be less 
valuable. Hudnall (1982) suggested the use of colored beads to mark 
snakes. 

Radioactive wire (8) . 

Barbour et al. (1969) first used a radioactive wire to mark 
snakes. A thin wire is inserted subcutaneously in the tail via a 
modified hypodermic syringe. The wires were radioactive Cobalt 
(Co 60 ) with a 50-80 microcurie dose. Hirth et al. (1969) and later 
Fitch (fide Ferner, 1979) used radioactive Tantalum (Ta 182 ) wire 
with 4 00 microcurie amounts. Snakes so marked can be located nine 
meters away when on the surface and three meters away when 30 cm 
below the surface. Tantalum and Cobalt have been the preferred 
source of radiation. Cobalt has a more powerful gamma radiation 
with a half-life of 5 years, whereas Tantalum has a half-life of 
only 6 months. The disadvantages of radioactive tags are that they 
may injure and eventually kill the snakes carrying them. 
Furthermore they are readily shed and then become hazardous to 
other animals or humans (Fitch, 1987) . Radioactive tags are 
preferable to radiotransmitters in smaller snakes. The use of 
radioactive tags (and telemetry) are reviewed in Spellerberg and 
Prestt (1978), Swingland (1978) and Ferner (1979). 

The major problem for the effective use of external tags is 
the choice of an adequate attachment site. The elongated, limbless 
body of snakes offers no satisfactory attachment sites. The 
possible sites are the free edges of the anterior ventrals, the 
cloacal plate, the lower jaw, or the base of the rattle in 
rattlesnakes. The tags must be attached in a manner to avoid 
interference with normal behavior and to reduce abrasion or loss 
of the tags. 

The aforementioned tags can be stitched to the skin with heavy 
thread, thin wire or nylon. Utmost care must be exercised when 
attaching tags to avoid injury. For example, pinched skin undergoes 
necrosis thereby modifying the snake's normal behavior and 
increasing the likelihood of tag loss (Fitch, 1987) . 

Painting/coloring 

Brush paint (9) . 

Fitch (1960) painted red, yellow, orange, and blue enamel 
marks on snakes to check on their shedding cycle. Pough (1966) used 



quick drying waterproof paint to number the basal rattle segment 
of rattlesnakes. This method has been further altered for 
rattlesnakes by Brown et al. (1984). The head and neck of snakes 
were painted by Parker (1976) for field identification. 

S pray painting (10) . 

Henderson et al. (1981) used rapid-drying fluorescent spray 
paint (non-toxic) to mark arboreal snakes. Three quarters of the 
animals spray-painted were later observed. Plummer (1985) also used 
spray paint to mark Opheodrys . 

Water color pencil (11). 

Stebbins (1966) suggested the use of Mongol water color 
pencils to temporarily mark specimens for field observations. 

The preceding three methods produce temporary marking, 
nonetheless they facilitate the recognition of individuals without 
recapture in a variety of field situations. The marks are lost with 
the shed exuvia or through wear. As Fitch (1987) points out, these 
methods have additional useful applications, such as for group 
markings of snakes to obtain capture-recapture ratios that can 
serve for a Petersen index census. In population studies based on 
permanent marking systems, these temporary marks provide the best 
method for investigating ecdysis cycles. 

Most species of snakes however are too secretive for regular 
or long-term observations, so the short duration of paint marking 
is of little use. Another major disadvantage is that the colored 
marks render marked individuals more conspicuous to visually 
oriented predators, hereby distorting the capture-recapture ratio 
(Fitch, 1987). 

Tattooing 

Battery powered tattooing (12) . 

Imler (1945) was the first researcher to tattoo snakes with 
a battery-operated unit. He tattooed the venter of bullsnakes with 
a special code number. This method was subsequently redescribed by 
Woodbury (1948, 1951) for marking rattlesnakes at a den. Using a 
portable tattooing outfit and India ink, he tattooed large numbers 
of snakes on their throats, subcaudals and/or ventrals, and areas 
lacking pigments. Disadvantages include the tendencies of the 
tattoos to fade and the necessity of tattooing unpigmented or 
lightly pigmented areas. 

Electric powered tattooing (13) . 

Weary (1969) improved the tattooing method by employing an 



inexpensive pyrographic needle (50 W unit operated from a 110 volt 
source) or a soldering pencil (powered by a 12 volt battery) to 
burn/scar scales without drawing blood. 

Tattooing is more labor-intensive than scale clipping and 
usually involves the transport of bulky equipment. Also a major 
drawback is that during marking, there is a high risk of injury 
and even death if the needle penetrates too deeply and pierces the 
body cavity. Fitch (1987) points out two additional problems 
limit img the widespread use of these techniques. First, in darkly 
pigmented individuals and species of snakes, the numbers are 
difficult to read accurately and second, especially in snakes 
marked as juveniles the ink spreads and sometimes blurs the 
numbers. 

Branding 

Hot (flame) branding (14). 

Clark (1971) described the use of a heat source, a Bunsen 
burner in the laboratory or a small propane torch in the field, to 
brand numbers on snakes by heating a branding wire of 2 0% 
chromium/80% nickel (Chromel A) and applying it to the scales. 

Cold (freeze) branding (15). 

Lewke and Stroud (1974) employed a superchilled branding 
instrument of copper wire to mark snakes. The technique was devised 
by Farrel (1966) for use with livestock. Of the three coolants 
tested (dry ice and 95% ethyl alcohol, Freon 12, and Freon 22), dry 
ice and alcohol was the most successful. Chromatophores are 
destroyed by quick-freezing the skin surface. The brand appears as 
a white area (Fitch, 1987) . 



Although this method is a good field-marking technique, a 
disadvantage is that the mark is not evident until after ecdysis 
and there is a minimal size limit of the branding iron used. 
Branding shares the same problems and disadvantages with tattooing. 
It is labor-intensive, sometimes causes injuries and may be 
difficult to read with heavily pigmented snakes. 



Recording integumentary and scale patterns 

Natural marks (16) . 

Calstrom and Edelstam (1946) employed the innovation of 
recording a snake's color pattern because each has a unique 
pattern. They photographed or sketched the fourth through eighth 



8 

ventrals (from anterior end) of Natrix natrix . These patterns were 
sufficient, in conjunction with other scuttelation data to 
reidentify individuals. Snakes with distinctive skin patterns like 
Coronella and Vipera were treated in the same manner by recording 
their dorsal patterns. The use of this technique was considered 
feasible for Pelamis by Kropach (1973) . Fitch (1987) suggests a 
methodology for recognition of individual Aqkistrodon contortrix 
based on the arrangement of complete and incomplete "hourglass" 
marks on the body. 

Scale formulae (17) . 

Blanchard and Finster (1933) mentioned an unsuccessfull 
attempt to recognize individuals with scuttelation data. However, 
Fukada (1978) described recording the arrangement of temporal 
scales in Elaphe climacophora as an adjunct to scale-clipping. 



Both of these pattern-recognition techniques are labor 
intensive in recording and recognizing specific patterns and 
furthermore prone to reading errors. As Fitch (1987) suggests, 
natural marks should be noted and used to confirm the 
identification of individuals based on other marks or tags. 

Incisions 

Tail-notching (18) . 

In Kropach's unpublished dissertation (1973), he described a 
tail notching protocol for seasnakes. He (Kropach, 1975) later 
elaborated on this technique. 

Radiotelemetry 

Fitch (1987) recommends two fundamental criteria that should 
be met for the use of radiotransmitters. The transmitters should 
be small enough not to burden the snake during its normal 
activities such as feeding and locomotion, yet large enough to have 
a sufficient transmission range for easy localization. 

Oral insertion (force fed) (19) . 

McGinnis and Moore (1969) pioneered the use of radiotelemetry 
in snake studies, adapting the technique used for lizards by 
McGinnis (1967) . They force-fed a Boa constrictor with a miniature 
temperature sensitive transmitter with a range of 100 meters. 
Various types of radio transmitters, antennae and battery sources 
have been used subsequently in snake studies. Transmitters are 
coated with paraffin/beeswax mixture or silicone, and are either 
palpated into the animal's stomach or sewn into a food item and 



9 

then force-fed. Battery life ranges from a few days to several 
months. Orally inserted radiotransmitters have been used by Brown 
and Parker (1976a), Brown et al. (1982), Fitch and Shirer (1971), 
Galligan and Dunson (1979) , Hammerson (1979) , Henderson et al. 
(1976), Jacob and McDonald (1975), Jacob and Painter (1980), 
Johnson (1972), Landreth (1973), Montgomery and Rand (1978), Moore 
(1978), Nickerson et al. (1978), Osgood (1970), Parker and Brown 
(1972) , Reinert (1981) and Reinert and Kodrich (1982) . 

Some disadvantages of this method are that the effective range 
of the transmitter is small, the transmitter may be regurgitated, 
and the transmitter in the stomach may cause behavioral changes in 
the snake. Fitch and Shirer (1971) tied a string around the body 
and sewed it to a ventral scale to prevent their snakes from losing 
the transmitters. Early studies demonstrated that the beeswax 
covering are digested by the snake, causing the transmitter to 
malfunction. 

Surgical insertion (20) . In order to alleviate the above mentioned 
problems, Fitch and Shirer (1971) surgically implanted transmitters 
into the abdomens of snakes. Brown and Parker (1976a) encapsuled 
their transmitters in polyethylene and inserted them abdominally 
with minimal bleeding. The sutures healed completely within two 
weeks. Other workers using this method include Brown and Parker 
(1982), Henderson et al. (1980), Jacob and Painter (1980). Reinert 
and Cundall (1982) improved the transmission of radiotelemeter by 
the implantation of both the transmitter and the antenna, the 
latter subcutaneously . Their transmitters had a maximum range of 
1.5 km, a vast improvement over previous techniques. Further 
examples of studies using this technique are those by Reinert et 
al. (1984) and Madsen (1984). 

Surgical implantation method involves anesthetizing the snake 
and inserting a foreign object into the body cavity. Although the 
healing process and fibrotic encapsulation may be rapid, behavioral 
alterations may occur (Fitch, 1987) . 

During the past two decades, the quality, longevity and 
distance of the emitted signals have been ameliorated. In 
conjunction with better radiotelemetry units, more efficient 
computerized radio-telemetric systems are now available to monitor 
free-ranging snakes (Stanmer, 1988) . Furthermore, the implantation 
techniques are more refined (Weatherhead et al., 1984). 

Fitch (1987) suggests that radiotelemetry may be the choice 
technique for most ecological research involving the marking of 
snakes. It allows for quick and effective monitoring of individuals 
in open terrain. In closed biotopes such as swamps, subterranean 



10 
habitats or rainforests, the situation is less favorable. 

SUMMARY 

Ecologists have a variety of different techniques at their 
disposal for the marking of snakes for field studies. With the 
sophistication now present in radiotelemetry , snakes can be tracked 
over long distances and recordings can be made for lengthy periods 
of time, such as overwintering in hibernacula. 

The following appendix and bibliography identify the various 
published marking techniques and the primary literature sources. 

The most widely used method for marking snakes may remain the 
ventral and subcaudal scale clipping. It is permanent, cost- 
efficient, and it allows the unique marking of each individual in 
a population. This method also has no permanent ill effect on the 
marked animals. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I would like to thank Van Wallach (Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Harvard University) for his help in providing references 
and Stephanie Ersek (Austin, Texas) for her imaginative cover 
illustration. 



11 

Appendix - This list is a partial overview at best of the species 
of snakes that have been tagged for field studies. Many more 
species have been marked in Masters theses and Doctoral 
dissertations as well as other publications that are not listed in 
the zoological records. See numbers in text for the identification 
of methods. 



TAXON 



METHODS USED 



FAMILY BOIIDAE 

Boa constrictor 
Morelia spilotes 



19 
19 



FAMILY COLUBRIDAE 

Carphophis amoenus 
Carphophis vermis 
Coluber constrictor 
Coronella sp. 
Coronella austriaca 
Diadophis punctatus 
Elaphe climacophora 
Elaphe obsoleta 
Elaphe quadrivirqata 
Elaphe subocularis 
Helicops anqulatus 
Heterodon nasicus 
Heterodon platyrhinos 
Lampropeltis calliqaster 
Lampropeltis trianqulum 
Leptophis depressirostris 
Liophis reqinae 
Masticophis lateralis 
Masticophis taeniatus 
Natrix natrix 
Nerodia fasciata 
Nerodia sipedon 
Nerodia taxispilota 
Opheodrvs aestivus 
Opheodrys vernalis 
Oxybelis aeneus 
Pituophis melanoleucus 
Rhabdophis tiqrinus 
Spilotes pullatus 
Storeria dekayi 



8 

1,3 

1,2,3,4,8,12,19,20 

16 

3 

1,2,3,8,17 

1 

1,3,19 

1 

1 

19 

3 

3 

1,3,19 

1,2,20 

19 

1 

19 

2,3,4,8,9,12,19 

16,17,20 

19 

1,3,19 

19 

10 

1 

3 

1,2,3,12,19 

1 

19 

1,3,8 



12 



Storeria occipitomaculata 
Thamnophis butleri 
Thamnophis eleqans 
Thamnophis ordinoides 
Thamnophis radix 
Thamnophis sirtalis 
Uromacer catesbvi 
Uromacer oxyrhynchus 



1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1,3,5,19 

10 

10 



FAMILY HYDROPHIIDAE 

Enhydrina schistosa 
Laticauda colubrina 
Pelamis platurus 



4,7 

3 

18 



FAMILY VI PERI DAE 

Aakistrodon contortrix 
Bothrops atrox 
Crotalus atrox 
Crotalus cerastes 
Crotalus horridus 
Crotalus mitchelli 
Crotalus molossus 
Crotalus scutulatus 
Crotalus viridis 
Sistrurus catenatus 
Trimeresurus flavoviridis 
Vipera sp. 
Vipera berus 



1, 3, 9, 16,19 

19 

1, 9, 19 

19 

1, 2, 3, 19, 20 

19 

1, 9 

1, 9 

1, 2, 6, 8, 12, 19, 20 

6, 19 

19,20 

16 

20 



13 
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17 

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Masticophis t. taeniatus (HALLOWELL) and Pituophis 

melanoleucus deserticola Stejneger, in northern Utah. Ph. 

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denning habits of whipsnakes, Masticophis t. taeniatus, in a 

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32(1): 53-57. 
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Copeia 1972(4): 892-895. 
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Great Basin rattlesnakes ( Crotalus viridis) at a 

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239. 
PARKER, W.S. & W.S. BROWN, W.S. 1974b. Notes on the ecology of 

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PLATT, D.R. 1969. Natural history of the hognose snakes, Heterodon 

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PLUMMER, M.V. 1985. Demography of green snakes ( Opheodrys 

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18 

POUGH, H. 1966. Ecological relationships of rattlesnakes in 
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POUGH, F.H. 1970. A quick method for permanently marking snakes 
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19 

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674. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DATA OF CHILEAN 
LIZARDS AND SNAKES IN THE 
MUSEO NACIONAL DE HISTORIA NATURAL 
SANTIAGO, CHILE 





HERMAN NUNEZ 

Seccion Zoologia 
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural 




SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL INFORMATION 
SERVICE 
NO. 91 



1992 



SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL 
INFORMATION 
SERVICE 



The SHIS series publishes and distributes translations, 
bibliographies, indices, and similar items judged useful 
to individuals interested in the biology of amphibians 
and reptiles, but unlikely to be published in the normal 
technical journals. Single copies are distributed free 
to interested individuals. Libraries, herpetological 
associations, and research laboratories are invited to 
exchange their publications with the Division of 
Amphibians and Reptiles. 

We wish to encourage individuals to share their 
bibliographies, translations, etc. with other 
herpetologists • through the SHIS series. If you have 
such items please contact George Zug for instructions on 
preparation and submission. Contributors receive 50 
free copies. 

Please address all requests for copies and inquiries to 
George Zug, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, 
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington DC 20560 USA. Please include 
a self-addressed mailing label with requests. 



INTRODUCTION 

The herpetological collections of the Museo Nacional de 
Historia Natural (MNHNC) contains about 3500 amphibians and 
reptiles. Nearly 90% of the specimens are lizards, and of 
these, most are Liolaemus , the most diversified member of the 
Chilean herpetofauna. The specimens of Liolaemus derive mainly 
from "central Chile", i.e., the area between the city of La 
Serena and the Biobio River. Both northern and southern Chile 
are relatively unexplored; thus, the taxonomy and composition of 
these herpetof aunas is less well known. 

The distribution of Chilean lizards and snakes has not 
received much attention (however, see Valencia & Velosa 1981, 
Velosa & Navarro 1988) beyond the general information provided 
by Peters & Donoso-Barros (1970) and Donoso-Barros (1966, 1970). 
The latter do not provide sufficient information to define the 
exact ranges, especially lacking altitudinal data, and such 
data are critical for Chile, which is a narrow country bordered 
on the east by mountains and a complex system of ridges and 
valleys with numerous isolated populations of lizards and 
snakes. 

Accurate distributional data are essential in clarifying 
biogeographical problems, ecological consequences of human 
intervention, and physiological aspects of latitudinal and 
altitudinal adaptations. Since the MNHNC collection has 76 
species of lizards and snakes, representing about 75% of Chilean 
species, the distributional data of these specimens provide a 
good baseline for such investigations. My goal has been to 
provide accurate locality data for the Chilean species of 
lizards and snakes vouchered by one or more MNHNC specimens. 
Uncertainties of taxonomy or locality are indicated by numbers 
in parentheses; these items are discussed at end of the 
taxonomic section. 

Taxa are listed alphabetically by family, genus, species, 
and finally by locality. Some localities are too small to 
appear in the Indice de Nombres Geograficos de Chile (Instituto 
Geografico Militar, no date) or in the Ruiso Patrdn Index 
(1942). Similar problems arise when the locality data are too 
broad (e.g., Magallanes) ; in these cases, I mark the data with 
sensu lato and report only the administrative region. 
Latitude and longitude are south and west, respectively, and the 
first two digits are degrees, the second two are minutes. 
Altitude is in meters above sea level. The final column provides 
a major city, town, or other geographic entity 
near to the specimen's origin. 

Chile contains a Metropolitan Region (RM) and twelve 



administrative regions: Primera Regi6n, Tarapaca; Segunda Reg., 
Antof agasta ; Tercera Reg., Atacama ; Cuarta Reg., Coquimbo; 
Quinta Reg., Aconcagua; Sexta Reg., Libertador General Bernardo 
O'Higgins; Septima Reg., Maule; Octava Reg., Biobio; Novena 
Reg., Araucania; Decima Reg., Los Lagos; Decimo Primera Reg., 
General Carlos Ibanez del Campo; Decimo Segunda Reg., Magallanes 
y Antartica Chilena. These regions are identified by number in 
the Reg. column. 

Acknowledgement. — This geographic summary was inspired by 
Mario Rosenmann, who encouraged me to compile the data and 
financed it, in part, by a FONDECYT grant 91/0842 to Mario 
Rosenmann. Ruby Salas produced and collated the specimen cards 
for the MNHNC collection. Andrea Seelenfreund revised and 
improved my English. 




Map of Chile with the administration regions designated by Roman 
numerals (listed in Introduction) . Scale, each segment = 100 km. 



Literature Cited 

Anon, no date. Indice de Nombres Geograficos de Chile. 2 Vol. 
Santiago; Edic. Inst. Geog. Militar. 

Donoso-Barros, R. 1966. Reptiles de Chile. Edic. Univ. Chile; 

Santiago. 
Donoso-Barros, R. 1970. Catalogo herpetol6gico chileno. Bol. 

Mus. Hist. Nat. 31: 50-124. 

Peters, J. A., and R. Donoso-Barros. 1970. Catalogue of the 
Neotropical Squamata. Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. 
Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 297. 

Ruiso Patr6n, L. 1924. Diccionario Geografico de Chile. 
Santiago; Impres. Universitaria. 

Valencia, J., and A. Velosa. 1979. Zoogeografia de los saurios 

de Chile, proposiciones para un esquema ecol6gico de 

distribuci6n. Medio Ambiente 5(1-2): 5-14. 
Velosa, A., and J. Navarro. 1988. Lista sistematica y 

distribucion geografica de anfibios y reptiles de Chile. 

Boll. Mus. reg. Sci. nat. Torino 6(2): 481-539. 




COLUBRIDAE 



Bafios 
Parque Nacional 



Phylodryas chamissonis 



Auco 
Camar ico 

Ca rt agena 
Cavilolen, cuesta 
Ce rrillos 

Chena 

Cobquecu ra 

Co 1 i na 

Concon 

Concepc ion 

Coquimbo 

Cul imo 

de 1 Flaco , 

Frav Jorge 

Km 300 Panam. Norte 

La Reina, Cerros de 

Lo Arcava 

Lo Barnechea 

Los Vi los 

Macul, Quebrada de 

Me 1 i pi I la 
Penal o len 
Penue la s , Lago 
P i c h L da ng u i 
Pudahue 1 
Qui nt ero 
Rapel 
San Antonio 

San Luis de Macu 1 

San Pedro, Lag una 

Sant a Luc ia , Ce rro 

Santa Rita 

Sant iago 

Santo Domingo, Roc.is de 

Taeo de Lampa 

Vilches Alto 



Lat . 



Long , 



Alt. Re 



3131 


7106 


500 


4 


3604 


7225 


1 50 


7 


3333 


7136 


60 


5 


3146 


7119 


700 


4 


3 3 30 


7046 


470 


RM 


3335 


7044 


950 


RM 


3608 


7249 





8 


3 320 


7048 


470 


RM 


3256 


7132 


80 


5 


3649 


7 303 


100 


8 


2957 


7120 


50 


4 


3204 


7114 


390 


4 


3458 


7028 


1520 


6 


3039 


7 140 





4 


3100 


ca7140 


100 


4 


3354 


7031 


1600 


RM 


3341 


7035 


6 50 


RM 


3321 


7030 


816 


RM 


3154 


7131 


5 


4 


3 329 


7028 


500- 








1800 


RM 


3 341 


7113 


1 70 


RM 


3 3 28 


7032 


800 


RM 


3 309 


7132 


343 


5 


3 208 


7132 


5 


4 


3 321 


7052 


490 


RM 


3247 


7132 


70 


5 


3 3 56 


7144 


40 


6 


3 3 3 5 


7137 


25 


5 


3 3 3 2 


7 033 


600 


RM 


3650 


7 305 


13 


8 


3 327 


7038 


600 


RM 


3340 


7031 


650 


RM 


3327 


7038 


600 


RM 


3328 


7137 


15 


5 


3314 


7055 


500 


RM 



3536 



7105 1150 



Tachymenis chilensis chilensis 

del Flaco. Banos 3458 

El Ingenio 3 346 



7028 
7015 



1520 6 
1 200 RM 



14 km NE Illapel 
Chipa tributary+ 
Cauquenes river 

3 km NE San Antonio 
24 km NE Los Vi los 

15 km SW Santiago 
4.5 km W San Bernardo 

I km W Cobquecura 
b km W Lnmpa 

15 km S Quintero 
Capital 8th Region 

I I km S La Serena 

5 km W Ti lama 

70 km SE San Fernando 
1 4 km W Salala 
South of Maitencillo 
Ravines E Santiago 
8 km Puente Alto 
14 km NE Sant iago 
0.5 km S Los Vi los 

18 km SE Santiago 
Me 1 i p i 1 la t own 
11 km SE Sant iago 
20 km SE Valparaiso 

4 km SW Qui lima ri 
13 km NW Sant iago 
30 km N Qui llota 

42 km SW San Antonio 

Capital San Antonio 

Province 

1 3 km SE Sant i ago 

4 km SW Concepc ion 

Cap i t a 1 of Ch i le 

8 km SW Puente Alto 
Ca pi t a 1 of Ch i le 

6 km S San Antonio 
Polpaico tributary + 
Chacabuco 

9 km SE Vilches 

70 km SE San Fernando 
50 km SE Santiago 



T. ch. chilensis (Cent.) 
Fi'.iv Jorge, Parque Nacional 
Los Cipreses, Va 1 1 e del rio 

Macu 1 , Quebrada de 

Morado, Valle del 

Put aendo 
Ramon, Cerro de 

T.i 1 i hi v 

Vi lehes , Alto 



Lat . Long. VI t . Reg. 
3039 7140 4 14 km W Salala 
3425 7026 900 6 Tributary of Cachapoal 

r ive i 

3329 7028 500- 

1800 RM 18 km SE Santiago 
3347 7002 2800 RM North tributary ot 

El Vole.. 'in river 
3237 7043 813 5 13 km N San Felipe 

3330 702b 3050 RM 25 km E Santiago 
3050 7137 7 62 4 9 km NW Penablanca 
3 536 7 105 1150 1 9 km SE Vilches 



GEKK0NIDAE 



Phyllodactylus gerrhopygus 

Antofagasta ( sensu lato) 
Toeop ilia 



2338 7042 30 2 
2250 7012 5 2 



Capital 2nd Region 
Cap i t a 1 Tocop ilia 
p rov Ln< e 



Diplolaemus bibroni 

Ch i 1 e Ch i co 

Diplolaemus darwini 

Ultima Esperanza 

Prist idactylus alvaroi 

El Roble, Cerro 

Pristidactylus torquatus 
Bellavista, Sierras de 
"Bosque Valdiviano" ( sensu 

lato) 
V. ild i via (sensu lato) 
Vilches Mto 

Pristidactylus valeriae 
Gantillana, Pies del Cerro 

Pristidactylus volcanensis 

El Volean 



P0LICHRIDAE 

4633 7 140 100 11 

5130 7 300 100 12 

3 538 7 102 2 200 5 

3436 7032 3 500 6 

3949 7314 10 10 

3536 7 105 1150 7 

3358 7058 600 6 



3349 7010 
TEIIDAE 



Callopistes palluma palluma 

Almendrillo 3 202 



80 km S Balmaceda 

Coastal of Setio 
U It ima Espe ranza 

2 5 km SE La Calera 

41 km E San Fernando 



Capital of 10th Region 
9 km SE Vi lehes 



24 km W San Francisco 
de Mostazal 



416 RM 60 km SE Sant iago 



7035 



650 



39 km NE Petorca 



C. p. palluma (Cont.) 


Lat . 


Long . 


Alt . 


Rej 


Auco 


3131 


7106 


500 


4 


Blanco, Gerro 


3309 


7049 


690 


RM 


Co 1 i 1H 


3320 


7048 


470 


RM 


Cuesta La Dormida 


3 303 


7102 


800 


RM 


El Roble , Gerro 


3 2 58 


7102 


2200 


5 


Grane ros 


3404 


7044 


475 


6 


La Serena (sensu lato) 


2954 


711 5 


50 


4 


Lipangue (Pudahuel) 


3 321 


7052 


490 


RM 


Macul, Quebrada do 


3 329 


7028 


500- 
1800 


RM 


Pa 1 qu i 


3044 


7057 


500 


4 


Plchidangui (sensu lato) 


3 208 


7132 


5 


4 


Polpa ico 


3309 


7047 


580 


RM 


San Lu i s de Macu 1 


3 332 


7033 


600 


RM 


Taco de Lampa 


3314 


7055 


500 


KM 



Callopistes palluma manni 
Copiapo (sector Loreto) 



2722 7020 
TR0PIDURIDAE 



450 



14 km NE Illapel 
12 km SE Tiltil 
6 km W Lampa 

37 km E Quilpue 
25 km SE La Calera 

1 2 km N Rancagua 
470 km N Sant iago 

13 km NW Sant iago 

18 km SE Santiago 
5 km S Monte Patria 
4 km SW Quilirnari 

15 km SE Tiltil 
13 km SE Sant i ago 
Polpaico tributary + 
Chacabuco 



Capital 3d Region 



Ceiolaemus fabiani 
San Pedro de Atacama 



2255 6812 2450 



Liolaemus alticolor 

Chungara 1814 

Isluga (Suricayo) 1915 

Liolaemus altissimus altissimus 



Cant i liana, Gerro (1) 

El Ten i ent e , Mina ( 1 ) 

Farellones (sensu lato) 

Lagun i 1 Las 

Mau le , Laguna del ( 1 ) 

Ramon, Cerro de 

San Francisco, Va 1 1 e del rfo 

Sewe 11 ( 1 ) 



3358 



Liolaemus altissimus moradoensis 

Colina, Banos de 3356 



El Yeso, Embalse 
Mor.ido, Val le del 

Negri , Laguna 

Liolaemus bibroni 

Ch i 1 e Ch i co 



3341 
3347 
3 3 39 



6909 
6843 

7058 



340 5 7 023 2 600 



7 000 
7007 
7002 
7008 



3 km SE Vi lama 



1 20 km S Caquena 
1 3 km N A 1 sore 



3404 


7022 


21 10 


6 


3320 


7019 


2308 


RM 


3 33 7 


7018 


2000 


RM 


3604 


7030 


2100 


7 


3 330 


7026 


3050 


RM 


3320 


7022 


2 500 


RM 



4633 7140 



4570 
4000 

600 6 24 km W San Francisco 
de Mostazal 
37 km NE Rancagua 
3 5 km E Sant i ago 
3 5 km SE Sant iago 
11 km W Paso Pehuenehe 

2 5 km E Santiago 
North t r i butary of 
Mapocho river 

3 1 km NE Rancagua 

2500 RM SE tributary of Volean 

r i ve r 
3370 RM NE tributary of Ma i po 

r i ver 
2800 RM North tributary of 

E 1 Vo 1 ca n r i ve r 
2200 RM 60 km SE Santiago 

100 11 80 km S Balmaceda 



Liolaemus bisignatus 

Caldera, Plava Negra 

Liolaemus buergeri 

El Planchon ( sensu lato) 
Ma ule , Laguna de 1 
San Pedro ( Ve re.i ra > 



Liolaemus cf ceii 

La s D.inns . Rio de 



Lat . 
2704 

3 514 
1604 
3510 



3455 



Long , 
7049 



702 



M t . 
19 



7034 3000 
7 030 2100 
7050 2200 



2000 
3000 



Reg. 
3 



Caldera town 

6 7 km S E Cur i co 

1 1 km SW Paso Pehuenche 
Teno Lake + SW Nacl- 
muuitu r i ve r 



7 3 km E San Fernando 



Liolaemus chiliensis 

Mgarrobo 

Ca rtagena 

Cobquecura 

Cues t a la Dormida 

Curama v i da 

El Belloto 

El Manzano 

El Pangue 

E 1 Ten iente , Mi na 

El Volcan 

La Pi ntana 

Le vda 

Macul, Quebrada de 

Pucon 

Putaendo 

Santiago (Quinta Normal) 

Santo Domingo, Roc. is de 

Talca ("4 km E de La Mina") 

T u 1 a h u e n 

Valparaiso (sensu lato) 

V i lches M to 

Zap.! I lar 

Liolaemus constanzae 

San Pedro de Ataeama 
Peine 

Liolaemus copiapoensis 

Huaseo (Plava grand*') 

Liolaemus cristiani 

El Pe i ne , Ce r ro 



3323 


7141 


30 


5 


3333 


7136 


60 


5 


3608 


7249 





8 


3 303 


7102 


800 


RM 


3717 


7244 


700- 








1200 


8 


3312 


71 14 


630 


5 


3 33 5 


7024 


1068 


RM 


3 315 


7112 


600 


RM 


3404 


7022 


1870 


6 


3 349 


7010 


1416 


RM 


3 33 7 


7039 


620 


RM 


3328 


7127 


190 


5 


3329 


7028 


500- 








1800 


RM 


3 4 1 6 


7 159 


280 


9 


3 23 7 


7043 


813 


5 


3327 


7038 


600 


RM 


3 3 38 


7 137 


15 


5 


3 5 50 


7047 


959 


7 


3 101 


7044 


1096 


4 


3 30 3 


7107 


194 


5 


3 536 


7105 


1 1 50 


7 


3 133 


7106 


4 50 


4 



2255 
2341 



2228 



3 53 7 



6812 2450 2 
6802 2400 2 



7131 



25 3 



7102 2448 7 



2 km SW Algarrobo 

3 km N San Antonio 

1 km W Cobquecura 
3 7 km E Qu i lpue 

2 km W Laja 

2 6 km SE Qu i lpue 
28 km S Sant i ago 
18 km NW Curacavi 

3 7 km NE Rancagua 
60 km SE Santiago 

7 km SE San Bernardo 

1 2 km W Pua ngue 

1 8 km SE Sant i ago 
7 3 km SE Temuco 

1 3 km N San Fe 1 ipe 
Cap i t a 1 of Ch i 1 e 

6 km S San Anton i o 
1 5 km E Cur i 1 1 i nque 
3 3 km NE Combarbala 
Capital of 5th Province 

9 km SE Vi lches 

10 km NE II lapel 



3 km SF V i 1 ama 

20 km E Laguna Brava 

Huaseo town 

1 4 km E Vi lches 



Liolaemus curis 

del Fl a co , Banos 
Las Darnas , Rio de 



Lat . Long . Alt. Rej; 

3458 7028 1520 6 
3455 7021 2000 

3 000 6 



70 km SE San Fernando 
73 km SE San Fernando 



Liolaemus cyanogaster cyanogaster 

Cobquecura 3608 7249 8 

Neltume 3915 7 213 225 9 

Villarrica 3916 7207 220 9 



1 km W Cobquecura 
3 km NE Villarrica 
68 km E Temuco 



Liolaemus darwini 

Chile Chico 

Liolaemus donosoi 

Taltal , Quebrada de 



4633 



2528 



7140 



100 



7025 750 



Liolaemus dorbigni (=L. puritamensisj 

Puritama 2243 6802 3550 



Toco n .io 

Liolaemus eleodori 

Negro Francisco, Laguna del 



Liolaemus fitzgeraldi 

de 1 1 nca , Laguna 

Liolaemus fitzingeri 

Chile Chico 

Liolaemus fuscus 

Auco 

Blanco , Cerro 

Cri 1 eu 

Cul imo 

Fr.iv Jorge, Parque Nacional 

II lapel 

La Camp an a , Ce rro 

La Plata, Quebrada de 

Macul , Quebrada de 

P L ch i dangu i 

Rui na s 

San Lu i s de Macu 1 

Talca 



2 il 



2727 



6800 2475 



6913 412 5 



3 250 


7009 


3 500 


5 


4633 


7140 


100 


1 1 


3131 


7 106 


500 


4 


3 309 


7049 


690 


RM 


3 300 


7100 


1 200 


RM 


3 204 


7114 


390 


4 


3039 


7 140 





4 


3138 


71 10 


3 50 


4 


3 2 57 


7107 


300 


5 


3 329 


7054 


900 


RM 


3329 


7028 


500- 








1800 


RM 


3 208 


7132 


5 


4 


3105 


7 138 


100 


4 


3 332 


7033 


600 


RM 


3 525 


7139 


90 


7 



80 km S Balmaceda 



Coastal range of 
Ant of agast a 



40 km NE San Pedro 

d e A t a c a m a 

8 km SE Zaparpilla 



1 2 km W Portezue 1 o 
Astaburuaga 



42 km E Los Andes 



90 km S Balmaceda 



14 km NE Illapel 

12 km SE Tilt il 
11 km NE Tilt i 1 
5 km W Tilama 
14 km W Salala 

50 km S Combarbala 
20 km SE La Calera 
Ravine at W of Santiago 

1 8 km SE Sant i ago 
4 km SW Qui 1 ima r f 
South of Maitencillo 

13 km SE Sant i ago 
Capital &th Region 



Liolaemus gravenhorsti 

Santiago ( sensu lato) 

Liolaemus hellmichi 
Moreno, Cerro 

Liolaemus hernani 

de 1 Flaco , Banos 

Los Cipreses, Valle del Rfo 

Sewe 1 1 

Liolaemus islugensis 

Col chain 

Liolaemus kingi 

Bu i t re ra s , Es t ac i on 



Liolaemus kuhlmani 

Concon 

Coquimbo 

La Senna ( sensu lato) 

L i ma r f 

Los V i 1 us 

Qui nt a v 

Quint ero (relictual forest) 

Tot ora 1 i 1 Lo 

Liolaemus lemniscatus 
C.i rtagena 

Clarillo, Vail i- del rio 

Cobquee ura 

Concon 

Cu 1 imo 

El Belloto 

El Principal 

El Volc.tn 

Huen t 1' I a uque n 

La Plata , Quebrada de 

Las Pa lmas , Rancho 

Llolleo, Laguna de 

Los Cipreses, Valle del rio 

Los Dom i n i cos 
Macul . Quebrada de 



Lat . Long . M t . Reg. 
3:527 70(8 bOO KM 



2400 695) 1785 



3458 7028 1 520 
3425 702b 900 

3405 7023 2600 



1917 6838 3850 



ca5140 ca6940 100 12 



3 2 56 


7 132 


80 


5 


2957 


7120 


50 


4 


2954 


7115 


50 


4 


3040 


7 1 32 


62 


4 


3 154 


7 131 


5 


4 


3312 


7142 


40 


5 


3 247 


71 \2 


70 


5 


3004 


7122 


5 


4 



3 333 


7136 


60 


5 


3341 


7034 


6 50 


RM 


3608 


7249 





8 


3 2 56 


7 132 


80 


5 


3204 


7114 


390 


4 


J312 


7114 


630 


5 


3 342 


7034 


670 


RM 


3 349 


7010 


1 416 


RM 


! 1 J 5 


7 132 


25 


4 


3329 


7054 


900 


RM 


J 301 


7 104 


500 


5 


3336 


7 137 


10 


5 


3425 


7026 


900 


6 


3323 


703 1 


784 


RM 


3329 


7028 


500- 








1 800 


RM 



Cap i t a 1 ot Chile 

20 km NW Ant of agast a 



70 km SE San Fernando 
Tributarv of Cachapoal 
rive r 
5 1 km NE Rancagua 



2 km W Pisiga Chile 

"on the road to Rio 
Ga 1 legos" (sic) 



15 km S Quint e ra 
1 1 km S La Serena 
470 km N Sant i ago 
1 km N Salala 
0. 5 km S Los Vilos 
20 km S Valparaiso 
30 km NW Quillota 
14 km W Guanaqueros 



3 km NE San Antonio 
South tributarv of 
Maipo river 

1 km W Cobquecura 
15 km S Q u i n t e r o 

5 km W Tilama 
26 km SE Qu i Ipue 
9 km S Puente Alto 
60 km SE Sant i ago 
3 5 km N Los Vilos 
Ravine at W Santiago 
3 4 km E Q u i 1 p u e 

2 km N Llol leo 
Tributarv of Cachapoal 
r i ve r 

1 1 km NE Sant i ago 

1 8 km SE San t i agi i 



10 



L. lemniscatus (Cone.) 


Lat . 


Long . 


Alt. 


Reg 


Pich i dangu i 


3 208 


7132 


5 


4 


Quint ero 


3247 


7 132 


70 


5 


Rene a , Cerros de- 


3324 


7042 


903 


RM 


San Antonio 


3335 


7137 


25 


5 



Taco de Lampa 



3 3 1 4 



7055 



500 RM 



Tagua-Tagua, San Vicente de 


3426 


7105 


207 


6 


Talca 


3 52 5 


7139 


90 


7 


Talca (4 km E de La Mina") 


3 550 


7047 


959 


7 



Vilches Alto 



3 536 



7105 1150 



Liolaemus leopardinus leopardinus 

El Teniente, Mina (1) 3404 7022 2110 6 

Farellones 3320 7019 2380 RM 

San Francisco, Valle del Rj'o 3320 7022 2500 RM 



4 km SW Quilimarf 

30 km N Qui llota 

8.5 km NW Santiago 

Capital San Antonio 

Province 

Polpaico tributary + 

Chacabuco 

18 km NW San Fernando 

Capital 7th province 

17 km E Curillinque 

9 km SE Vilches 



3 7 km NE Rancagua 
35 km E Santiago 
North tributarv of 
Mapocho River 



Liolaemus leopardinus ramonensis 

Ramon, Cerro de 3 330 

Liolaemus leopardinus spp. 

El Yeso, Embalse (2) 3341 

Sewell (2) 3405 

Liolaemus leopardinus valdesianus 

Lo Valdes 3351 

Liolaemus lineomaculatus 

Amorosa , Lagun.i .... 

Liolaemus lorenzmuelleri 

La Lagun.i, Embalse 3013 

Liolaemus magellanicus 

Ba lmaceda 

Cat a 1 ina , Bah fa 

Jose f i na , Ca le t a 

Dos Lagunas 

Manant i a 1 es 

Mag. il lanes ( sensu lato) 

Punt a Arenas (sensu lato) 

San Grego r i o 

Ultima Esperanza (Lagun.i 

Azul) 5 130 



7026 3050 RM 25 km E Santiago 



7007 3 3 70 RM 
7023 2600 6 

7003 1800 RM 

12 

7004 3275 4 



4550 


7138 


20 


11 


5305 


7050 





12 


5321 


69 3 4 





12 


• . . . 


.... 


• . • 


12 


• • • ■ 


.... 


. • . 


12 


5 300 


7040 


. • . 


1 2 


5 310 


7054 


12 


1 2 


5239 


7013 


64 


1 2 



7 300 



100 12 



NE tributarv of Maipo 

r i v e r 

3 1 km NE Rancagua 

South Tributarv of 
El Vol can river 



53 km SE Guanta 

120 km SE Puerto Avsen 
Between Ensenada 
Laredo and Punt a Arenas 
100 km E Bahia Inutil 



12th Reg i on 

Capital of 12th Region 
North of Segunda Angos^ 
t ura 

Coastal of Seno Ultima 
Esperanza 



11 



Lat . 
3043 



Liolaemus maldonadae 

Los Molles 

Liolaemus monticola monticola 

Almendr i 1 lo 

Ca 1 eu 

El Roble , Ce rro 

El Volcan 

Farellones (Curva 20) 

Los Dominicos 

La Plata, Quebrada de 

Macul. Quebrada de 

San Luis de Macul 

Liolaemus nigriceps (3) 

Rio Frio 



Liolaemus nigromaculatus nigromaculatus 

Caldera (playa Negra) 2704 7049 

Copiapo, rio Huasco 2722 7020 

Pan de Azucar, Cerro 2807 7056 

Liolaemus nigromaculatus atacamensis 
Antofagasta (11 km al norte) 2338 7043 

Pan de Azucar, Cerro 2807 7056 

Taltal 2 524 7029 



Long. Alt. RM 
7039 2600 

2800 4 



3202 


7035 


1650 


4 


3300 


7100 


1200 


RM 


3 2 58 


7 102 


2200 


5 


3 349 


7010 


1416 


RM 


ca3320 


ca70l9 


1 800 


RM 


3323 


7031 


784 


RM 


3 329 


7054 


900 


RM 


3329 


7028 


500- 








1800 


RM 


33 32 


7033 


600 


RM 


2 500 


6904 


1000 


2 



19 
450 
756 



30 
756 
115 



Liolaemus nigroviridis campanae 

El Roble, Cerro 3258 

La Campana, Cerro 3257 

Liolaemus nigroviridis minor 
Colina, Bafios de 3 3 56 



El Volcan 

El Ye so, Embalse 

Lo Valdt's 

Morado, Valle del 

Morales, Bafios de 

Negra , Laguna 



7102 2200 
7107 1900 



7000 2 500 RM 



3349 


7010 


1416 


RM 


3341 


7007 


3370 


RM 


3351 


7003 


1 800 


RM 


3 347 


7002 


2 800 


RM 


3347 


7005 


2000 


RM 


3 3 39 


7008 


2200 


RM 



53 km E Ova lie 



39 km NE Petorca 
11 km NE Tiltil 
25 km SE La Calera 
60 km SE Santiago 
30 km E Santiago 
11 km NE Sant i ago 
Ravine at W Santiago 

18 km SE Santiago 
13 km SE Sant i ago 



High plateau of 
Ant of agast a 



Caldera town 

Capital 3d Region 

4 km N Cant era de Agua 



Capital 2nd Region 

4 km N Canter.i de Agua 

190 km S Antofagasta 



25 km SE La Calera 
20 km SE La Calera 



SE tributarv of El 

Vo lean river 

60 km SE Santiago 

NE tributarv of Maipo 

r i vi 1 r 

South tributarv of El 

Volcan river 

North t r ibut arv of El 

Volcan rive r 

North tributary of El 

Volcan River 

60 km SE Santiago 



12 



Liolaemus nigroviridis nigroroseus 

Lat . 
Chiuchi u 

Licancabur, Volcan (on the 
road to Sulphur mine) 
Peine 

San Pedro de Ataeama 
Talabre (4) 



Long . Al t . Reg . 

6839 2520 2 

6753 4000 2 

6802 2400 2 

6812 2450 2 

ca2311 ca6800 2500 2 



2220 

2250 
2341 
2255 



3 km N Salado river 

1 1 km N Casablanca 
20 km E Laguna Brava 
3 km SE Vilama 
8 km SE Zaparpilla 



Liolaemus nigroviridis nigroviridis 

Arrayan , Quebrada del 
Cantillana, Cerro (1) 



Farel lones 
Lagunil las 
Macul. Quebrada de 

Ramon, Cerro de 
Sewe 11 ( 1 ) 

Liolaemus nitidus 

Auco 

Cartagena 

Colina 

Cul imo 

El Roble, Cerro 

El Volcan 

Fare 1 lones 

Farellones (curva 20) 

Fray Jorge, Parque Nacional 

Illapel 

Lo Valdes 

Macul, Quebrada de 

P i chidangui 

Ramon, Cerro de (5) 

San Antonio 

Santo Domingo, Rocas de 
Sewe 1 1 
Ta 1 i nav 
Tulahuen 



ca3321 


ca7028 


1800 


RM 


3358 


7058 


2281 


6 


3 320 


7019 


2308 


RM 


3337 


7018 


2000 


RM 


3329 


7028 


500- 








1800 


RM 


3330 


7026 


3050 


RM 


3405 


7023 


2600 


6 


3131 


7106 


500 


4 


3333 


7136 


60 


5 


3 320 


7048 


470 


RM 


3204 


7114 


3 90 


4 


3258 


7102 


2200 


5 


3349 


7010 


1416 


RM 


3320 


7019 


2380 


RM 


ca3320 


ca7019 


2380 


RM 


3039 


7140 





4 


3138 


7110 


3 50 


4 


3351 


7003 


1800 


RM 


3 329 


7028 


500- 








1800 


RM 


3208 


7132 


5 


4 


3330 


7026 


3050 


RM 


3 335 


7137 


25 


5 


3 3 38 


7137 


1 5 


5 


3405 


7023 


2600 


6 


3050 


7137 


762 


4 


3101 


7044 


1096 


4 



1 5 km E Sant iago 

24 km W San Francisco 
de Mostazal 

35 km E Santiago 
3 5 km SE Santiago 

18 km SE Santiago 

25 km E Santiago 
31 km NE Rancagua 



14 km NE Illapel 

3 km NE San Antonio 

6 km W l,ampa 

5 km W Tilama 

2 5 km SE La Calera 
60 km SE Santiago 
35 km E Santiago 

3 5 km NE Santiago 
14 km W Salala 

50 km S Combarbala 
South tributary ot El 
Volcan river 

18 km SE Sant iago 

4 km SW Quilimari 
2 5 km E Sant iago 
Capital San Antonio 
Provi nee 

6 km S San Antonio 
31 km NE Rancagua 
9 km NW Penablanca 
33 km NE Combarbala 



Liolaemus ornatus 

Colchane 
Lampaipat a 



1917 6838 3850 
cal9l7 ca6838 3850 



2 km W Pisiga Chile 
Near Colchane 



13 



Liolaemus pantherinus 

01 lagiie 

Liolaemus paulinae 

Calama, (las vegas) 

San Pedro de Atacama (6) 

Liolaemus pictus chiloensis 
Chiloe island (sensu lato) 

Liolaemus pictus pictus 

Va 1 di vi a 

Ne 1 1 ume 

Vilches Alto (1 ) 

Liolaemus platei platei 

Auco 

Copiapo (sector Loreto) 

El Teniente 

Frav Jorge, Parque Nacional 

Morri 1 los 

Tulahuen 



Lat . 
2113 



2227 
2 25 5 



Long . 
6815 



6856 
6812 



3949 7 314 



Alt. 
3 700 



2 2 50 
2450 



10 



Re^ 
2 



10 



.0 



3915 7213 225 9 
3536 7105 1150 7 



3131 


7106 


500 


4 


2722 


7020 


450 


3 


3100 


7138 


200 


4 


3039 


7140 





4 


3011 


7133 


5 


4 


3101 


7044 


1096 


4 



3 50 km NE Antofagasta 



Capital El Loa Province 
3 km E Vi lama 



3 km S Puerto Montt 



Capital Valdivia 

province 

3 km NE Vi 1 larrica 

9 km SE Vilches 



14 km NE Illapel 
Capital 3d Region 
South of Maitencillo 
14 km W Salala 
5 km NE Guanaqueros 
33 km NE Combarbala 



Liolaemus pseudolemniscatus 

Auco 

Camion 

Cul imo 

El Teniente 

Illapel 

Rui nas 

Liolaemus schmidti 

Le j ia , Laguna 
Antofagasta, Altiplano de 
Tara , Laguna 
Punta Negra, Salar de 

Liolaemus schroederi 

Cuesta la Dormida 
El Roble, Cerro 
El Teniente , Mi na 
Fare 1 lones 
La Campana, Cerro 
La Disputada 

Macul, Quebrada de 



3131 


7106 


500 


4 


3103 


7139 


100 


4 


3 204 


7114 


390 


4 


3100 


7138 


100 


4 


3138 


7110 


3 50 


4 


3105 


7138 


100 


4 



2329 


6741 


43 50 


2 
2 
2 


2259 


6717 


4350 


2428 


6854 


2960 


2 


3 303 


7102 


800 


RM 


3 2 58 


7102 


2 200 


5 


3404 


7022 


2110 


6 


3 320 


7019 


2380 


RM 


3257 


7107 


300 


5 


3320 


7002 


2 500 


RM 


3329 


7028 


500- 








1800 


RM 



14 km NE Illapel 
Near Maitencillo town 
5 km W Tilama 
South of Maitencillo 
50 km S Combarbala 
South of Maitencillo 



18 km Angostura Pili 
2nd region 

18 km SE Laguna Blanca 
E of Pique San Carlos 



37 km E Quilpue 

2 5 km SE La Calera 

3 7 km NE Rancagua 
3 5 km E Sant iago 
20 km SE La Calera 
North tributary of 
Mapocho river 

18 km SE Santiago 



14 



L. schroederi (Cont.) Lat. 
San Francisco, Valle del rio 3320 



Long. Alt. Re^ 
7022 2500 KM 



Sant iago 
Tunca 

Vilehes Alto 
Villarrica (6) 

Liolaemus silvai 

Copiapo 



3327 
3 423 
3536 
3916 



2722 



Liolaemus tenuis punctatissimus 

Parque Lota 3705 



Liolaemus tenuis tenuis 

Algarrobo 
Ca rt agena 
Clarillo, Valle del rio 

Cul imo 

La Campana , Cerro 
Las Palmas, Rancho 
Macul, Quebrada de 

Pichidangui (cerro El Carmen) 
San Antonio 

Santa Lucia Cerro 

Sant i ago 

Tagua-Tagua , San Vicente de 

Talca ("4 km E de La Mina") 

Trapa-Trapa 

Vilehes Alto (1) 

Liolaemus walkeri 

Licancabur, Volcan (on the 
road to Sulphur mine) 
San Pedro de Ataeama 



2 2 50 
2255 



7038 600 

7106 200 

7105 1150 

7207 220 



7020 450 



RM 
6 
7 
9 



North tributary of 
Mapocho river 
Capital of Chile 
7 km Peumo 
9 km SE Vilehes 
68 km SE Temuco 



Capital 3d region 



Liolaemus zapallarensis zapallarensis 

Fray Jorge, Parque Nacional 3039 7140 
Pichidangui 3208 7132 

Talinay Alto 3050 7137 



7309 20 8 30 km S Concepcion 



2 km SW Algarrobo 

3 km NE San Antonio 
South tributary of 
Maipo river 

5 km W Tilama 

20 km SE La Calera 

34 km E Quilpue 

1 8 km SE Santiago 

4 km SW Quilimari 
Capital San Antonio 
Provi nee 

Capital of Chi le 
Capital of Chile 
18 km NW San Fernando 
15 km E Curillinque 
70 km E Santa Barbara 
9 km SE Vilehes 



4000 2 1 1 km N Casablanca 
2450 2 3 km SE Vilama 



4 14 km W Salala 
5 4 4 km SW Quilimari 
762 4 9 km NW Pefiablanca 



3323 


7141 


30 


5 


3333 


7136 


60 


5 


3341 


7034 


6 50 


RM 


3 204 


7114 


390 


4 


3257 


7107 


300 


5 


3301 


7104 


500 


5 


3329 


7028 


500- 








1800 


RM 


3208 


7132 


800 


4 


3335 


7137 


25 


5 


3327 


7 038 


600 


RM 


3327 


7038 


600 


RM 


3426 


7105 


207 


6 


3550 


7047 


959 


7 


3744 


7113 


1400 


8 


3536 


7105 


1150 


7 



6753 
6812 



Phrynosaura audituvelata (7) 

San Pedro de Ataeama 2255 



6812 2450 2 3 km SE Vilama 



Phrynosaura reichei 

Ataeama, Subeordi 1 1 e ra de 
Punta Negra, salar de 



2428 6854 2960 



3 3d region 

2 E Pique San Carlos 



15 



Phymaturus flagellifer 

del Flaco, Bancs 

El Planchon 

Las Damas, Rio de 

Los Andes (8) 

Los Cipreses, Valle del rio 



Lat. 


Long. 


Alt 


3458 


7026 


1 520 


3514 


7034 


3000 


3455 


7021 


1500 
3000 


3250 


7 036 


820 


3425 


7026 


900 



Reg. 
6 
7 

6 
5 
6 



70 km SE San Fernando 
67 km SE Curico 

73 km E San Fernando 
65 km N Santiago 
Tributary of Cachapoal 
river 



Tropidurus atacamensis 

Antot agast a 

Copiapo (sector Loreto) 
Moreno, cerro (at foot) 
Santa Maria, islote 

Tocopil la 



Velosaura jamesi 

Chungara 



2338 


7024 


30 


2 


2722 


7020 


450 


3 


2400 


6953 


1 785 


2 


2400 


69 53 


10 


2 



2 2 50 



Tropidurus theresioides (?) 

Yalquincha, Quebrada de 2227 



7012 



6856 2250 



1814 6909 4570 



Capital 2nd region 
Capital 3d region 
20 km NW Antofagasta 
Small islet near 
Cerro Moreno 
Capital Tocopilla 
province 



ca Calama town 



1 20 km S Caquena 



Notes 

(1) These lizards are atypical, although thev belong to the nominal 
group. 

(2) Both differ from each other, as well as from the nominal form. 

(3) Insertae sedis. 

(4) These lizards (only two specimens) are rather atypical, they are 
included in this species only for convenience. 

(5) Exceptionally onlv one specimen was captured at the summit of 
Cerro de Ramon. 

(6) Uncertain locallity. 

(7) This species was formerly described in the genus Ctenoblepharys , 
its inclusion into the genus Phrynosaura, demands the shift of the 
species name desinence in accordance with the new one (Art. 31, letter 
b, of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 3d ed., 1985). 

(8) Very Uncertain locallity. 



16 



Locality (Lat. /Long. /A It. /Reg ion) 
Species 

Algarrobo (3323/7141/30/5/2 km SW Algarrobo) 
Liolaemus chihensis 
Liolaemus tenuis tenuis 

Almendrillo (3202/7035/1650/4/39 km NE Petorca) 
Callopistes palluma palluma 
Liolaemus monticola montinola 

Amorosa, Laguna ( — / — / — /12/ — ) 
Liolaemus lineomaculatus 

Antofagasta ( 2338/7024/30/2/Capital of 2nd region) 
Liolaemus mgromaculatus atacamensis 
Phyllodactylus gerrhopygus 
Tropidurus atacamensis 

Antofagasta, Altiplano de (.../... /1000/2/range of Antofagasta) 
Liolaemus nigriceps (insertae sedis) 
Liolaemus schmidti 

Arrayan, Quebrada del ( ca3321/ca7028/1800/RM/15 km E Santiago) 
Liolaemus mgroviridis nigrovindis 

Ataca.a, subcordillera de (.../... /500-1000)/3/Range of Atacama) 
Phrynosaura reirhei 

Auco' (3131/7106/500/4/14 km NE Illapel) 
Callopistes palluma palluma 
Liolaemus fuscus 
Liolaemus mtidus 
Liolaemus platei platei 
Liolaemus pseudolemmscatus 
Philodryas chamissoms 

Baliaceda (ca 4550/ca 7138/200/11/120 km SE Puerto Aysen) 
Liolaemus magellamcus 

Bellavista, Sierras de (3436/7032/3500/6/41 km E San Fernando) 
Pristidactylus torquatus 

Blanco, Cerro ( 3309 / 7049/690 /RM / 1 2 km SE Tiltil) 
Callopistes palluma palluma 
Liolaemus fuscus 

Buitreras, Estaci6n (ca 5140/ca 6940/100/12/"on the road to Rio Gallegos" -sic- 
Liolaemus kmgi 



17 



Calaia ( 2227/6856/2250/2/Capital of El Loa Province) 
Liolaemus paulinae 

Caldera ( 2704/7049/19/3/Caldera town) 

Liolaemus bisignatus 

Liolaemus mgromaculatus mgromaculatus 

Caleu ( 330O/71OO/12O0/RM/1 1 km NE Tiltil) 
Lioldemus fuscus 
Lioldemus lemmscatus 
Lioldemus monticola monticold 

Camarico ( 3604/7225/150/7/Estero Chipa + Cauquenes river) 
Philodryas chamissonis 

Canion ( 3 1 03/ 7 1 39 / 1 00/4/Near Maitencillo town) 
Lioldemus pseudolemmscatus 

Cantillana, Cerro (3358/7058/2281/6/24 km W San Francisco de Mostazal) 
Lioldemus dltissimus (atipical form) 
Lioldemus nigroviridis (atipical form) 
PristlddCtylus V dleride -at foot of Cerro Cantillana- 

Cartagena (3333/7136/60/5/3 km N San Antonio) 
Lioldemus chiliensis 
Liolaemus lemmscdtus 
Liolaemus nitidus 
Lioldemus tenuis tenuis 
Philodryds chamissonis 

Catalina, Bahia (5305/7050/0/1 2/Between Ensenada Laredo and Punta Arenas] 
Liolaemus magellanicus 

Cavilolen, Cuesta (3146/7119/700/4/24 km NE Los Vilos) 
Philodryas chamissonis 

Chena ( 3335/7044/950/RM/4.5 km W San Bernardo) 
Philodryds ihdmissonis 

Chile Chico (4633/7140/100/11/80 km S Balmaceda) 
Diplolaemus bibrom 
Liolaemus bibrom 
Lioldemus ddrwini 
Lioldemus fitzmgeri 

Chiloe, Island (.../.../... /10/The biggest island S Puerto Montt) 
Liolaemus pictus chiloensis 

Chiuchiu (2220/6839/2520/2/3 km N Salado river) 
Liolaemus nigroviridis nigroroseus 



18 



Chungara (1814/6909/4570/1/20 km S Caquena) 
Lioldemus dlticolor 
Velosaura jamesi 

Cerrillos (3330/7046/470/RM/15 km SW Santiago) 
Philodryas chamissoms 

Clarillo, Valle del rio ( 334l/7043/650/RM/South tributary of Maipo river) 

Liolaemus lemmscatus 

Liolaemus tenuis tenuis -a local form with reddish throat- 

Cobquecura (3608/7249/0/8/1 km W Cobquecura town) 

Liolaemus chiliensis 

Liolaemus cyanogaster cyanogaster 

Liolaemus lemmscatus 

Philodryas chamissoms 

Colchane (1917/6838/3850/1/2 km W Pisiga Chile) 
Liolaemus islugensis 
Liolaemus ornatus 

Colina (3320/7048/470/RM/6 km W Lampa) 
Callopistes palluma palluma 
Liolaemus mtidus 
Philodryas chamissoms 

Colina, Baiios de ( 3356/7000/2500/RM/SE tributary of El Volcan river) 
Liolaemus altissimus moradoensis 
Liolaemus mgroviridis minor 

Concepcion ( 3649/ 7303/ 1 00/8/Capi t al of 8th region) 
Philodryas chamissoms 

Concon (3256/7132/80/5/15 km S Quintero) 
Liolaemus kuhlmam 
Liolaemus lemmscatus 
Philodryas chamissoms 

Copiapo (2722/7020/450/3/Capital 3d region) 

Callopistes palluma manm 

Liolaemus mgromaculatus mgromaculatus 

Liolaemus platei platei 

Liolaemus silvai 

Tropidurus ata<amensis 

Coquimbo (2957/7120/50/4/11 km S La Serena) 
Liolaemus kuhlmam 
Philodryas chamissoms 



19 



Cuesta La Doriida ( 3303/ 7 1 02 /800/RM / 37 km E Quilpue) 
Callopistes palluma palluma 
Liolaemus chihensis 
Liolaemus schroederi 

Culino (3204/7114/390/4/5 km W Tilama) 
Liolaemus fuscus 
Liolaemus lemmscatus 
Liolaemus nitidus 
Liolaemus pseudolemmscatus 
Liolaemus tenuis tenuis 
Philodryas chamissoms 

Curamavida ( 371 7/7244/700-1200/8/2 km W Laja) 
Lioldemus chihensis 

del Flaco, Bafios (3458/7028/1520/6/70 km SE San Fernando) 

Liolaemus curis 

Liolaemus hernani 

Phymaturus flagelhfer 

Philodryas chamissoms 

Tachymenis <:hilensis chilensis 

del Inca, Laguna -Portillo- (3250/7009/3500/5/42/ E Los Andes) 
Liolaemus fitzgeraldi 

Dos Lagunas (.../.../... /12/? ) 
Liolaemus magellanirus 

El Belloto (3312/7114/630/5/26 km SE Quilpue) 
Liolaemus chihensis 
Liolaemus lemmscatus 

El Ingenio ( 3346/7015/1200/RM/20 km SE Santiago) 
Tachymenis chilensis chilensis 

El Manzano ( 3335/7024/1068/RM/28 km S Santiago) 
Liolaemus chihensis 

El Pangue ( 3315/71 12/600/RM/18 km NW Curacavi) 
Liolaemus chihensis 

El Peine, cerro (3537/7102/2448/7/4 km E Vilches) 
Liolaemus cristiam 

El Planchon (3514/7034/3000/7/67 km SE Curico) 
Liolaemus buergen 
Phymaturus flagellifer 



20 



El Principal ( 33^2 / 7034/ 670 /RM/9 km S Puente Alto) 
Liolaemus lemmscatus 

El Roble, cerro (3258/7102/2200/5/25 km SE La Calera) 
Callopistes palluma palluma 
Liolaemus monticola monticola 
Liolaernus mgroviridis campanae 
Liolaemus nitidus 
Liolaemus schroeden 
Pristidactylus alvaroi 

El Teniente ( 3100/7138/100/4/South of Maitencillo) 
Liolaemus platei platei 
Liolaemus pseudolemmscatus 

El Teniente, Hina (3404/7022/1870/6/37 km NE Rancagua) 
Liolaemus altissimus altissimus (atipical form) 
Liolaemus chiliensis _ 1 870 masl - 
Liolaemus leopardmus leopardinus (atipical form) 
Liolaemus s<:hroederi 

El Volcan ( 3349/7010/1416/RM/60 km SE Santiago) 
Liolaemus chiliensis 
Liolaemus lemmscatus 
Liolaemus monticola monticola 
Liolaemus mgroviridis minor 
Liolaemus nitidus 
Pri.-,tida<tylus volcanensis 

El Yeso, Elbalse ( 3341 / 7007/ 3 3 70/RM /NE tributary of Maipo river) 
Liolaemus altissimus moradoensis 
Liolaemus leopardinus ssp. 
Liolaemus mgroviridis minor 

Farellones ( 3320/7019/2200-3000/RM/35 km E Santiago) 
Liolaemus altissimus altissimus 
Liolaemus leopard i nus I eqpatdmus 
Liolaemus mgroviridis mgroviridis 
Liolaemus nitidus 
Liolaemus schroeden 

Farellones, (Curva 20) (ca 3320/ca70 19/ 1 800/RM /30 km E Santiago) 
Liolaemus monticola monti<~ola 
Liolaemus nitidus 

Fray Jorge, Parque Nacional (3039/7140/0-400/4/14 km W Salala) 
Liolaemus fuscus 
Liolaemus nitidus 
Liolaemus platei platei 



21 



Liolaemus zapallarensis zapallarensis 
Philodryas chamissoms 
Tachymenis chilensis chilensis 



Graneros (3404/7044/475/6/12 km N Rancagua) 
Callopistes palluma palluma 

Huasco, Puerto de ( 2228/7131 /25/3/NE Vallenar) 

Liolaemus copiapoensis 

Liolaemus nigromatulatus nigromaculatus 

Huentelauquen (3135/7132/25/4/35 km N Los Vilos) 
Liolaemus lemmscatus 

Illapel (3138/7110/350/4/50 km S Combarbala) 

Liolaemus fus<:us 

Liolaemus nitidus 

Liolaemus pseudolemmscatus 

Isluga (1915/6843/4000/1/3 km N Alsore) 
Liolaemus altn:olor 

Josefina, Caleta (5321/6934/0/12/100 km of Bahia Inutil) 
Liolaemus magellam<:us 

Kilometro 300 Panan. Norte ( ca3100/ca7140/100/4/South of Maitencillo) 
Philodryas i:hamissoms 

La Canpana, cerro (3257/7107/300-1900/5/20 km SE La Calera) 

Cdllopistes palluma pallumd 

Liolaemus fus<:us 

Liolaemus nigroviridis < ampanae 

Liolaemus schroederi 

Liolaemus tenuis tenuis 

La Disputada, Nina ( 3320/7002/ 2500/RM/N tributary of Mapocho river) 
Liolaemus srhroederi 

La Laguna, Eibalse (3013/7004/3275/4/53 km SE Guanta) 
Liolaemus lorenzmuelleri 

La Pintana ( 33 3 7/ 7039/ 6 20/RM / 7 km SE San Bernardo) 
Liolaemus chiliensis 

La Plata, Quebrada de ( 3329/7054/900/RM/Ravine at W Santiago) 
Liolaemus fuscus 
Liolaemus lemms<:atus 
Liolaemus monti< ola monti<:ol<i 



22 



La Reina, Cerros de ( 3354/7031 / 1600/RM/Ravines at E Santiago) 
Philodryus chamissonis 

La Serena (2954/7115/50/4/470 km N Santiago) 
Cullopistes pullumu pullumu 
Lioluemus kuhlm<jni 

Las Dallas, Rio de (3455/7021/2000-3000/6/73 km E San Fernando) 
Lioluemus cf ceil 
Liolciemus curis 
Phymuturus flugellifer 

Las Palmas, Rancho (3301/7104/500/5/34 km E Quilpue) 
Lioluemus lemmscutus 
Lioluemus tenuis tenuis 

Lagunillas ( 333 7/ 70 1 8 / 2000 /RM/35 km SE Santiago) 
Lioluemus ultissimus ultissimus 
Lioluemus mgroviridis nigroviridis 

Lampaipata, Quebrada (cal917/ca6838/3850/l/2 km W Pisiga Chile! 
Lioluemus ornutus 

Lejia, Laguna (2329/6741/4350/2/18 km Angostura de Pili) 
Lioluemus schmidti 

Leyda (3328/7127/190/5/12 km W Puangue) 
Lioluemus chiliensis 

Licancabur, Volcan (2250/6753/4000/2/11 km N Casablanca) 
Lioluemus nigroviridis mgroroseus 
Lioluemus wulkeri 

Limari (3040/7132/62/4/1 km N Salala) 
Lioluemus kuhlmuni 

Lipangue ( 3321/7052/490/RM/13 km NW Santiago) 
Cullopistes pullumu pullumu 



Llolleo (-Llo-lleo), Laguna de (3336/7137/10/5/2 km N Llolle 
Lioluemus lemmscutus 

Lo Arcaya ( 3341/7035/650/RM/8 km S Puente Alto) 
Philodryus chumissonis 

Lo Barnechea ( 3321/7030/816/RM/14 km NE Santiago) 
Philodryus chumissom^ 







23 



Lo Valdes ( 3351 / 7003/ 1 800/RM/South tributary of El Volcan river) 
Liolciemus leopardmus valdesianus 
Liolaemus nigroviridis minor 
Liolaemus mtidus 

Los Andes (3250/7036/820/5/65 km N Santiago) 
Phymcjturus flagelllfer (so uncertain locality) 

Los Cipreses, Rio ( 3425/7026/900/6/Tributary of Cachapoal river) 
Liolciemus hernani 
Liolaemus lemms<atus 
Phymaturus flagelllfer 
Ta<:hymenis < hilensis rhilensis 

Los Dominicos ( 3323/7031 /78^/RM/l 1 km NE Santiago) 
Liolaemus lemniscutus 

Liolaemus montuola montn ola 

Los Holies (3043/7039/2600-2800/4/83 km E Vallenar) 
Liolaemus maldonadae 

Los Vilos (3154/7131/5/4/0.5 km S Los Vilos town) 
Liolaemus kuhlmam 
Philodryas <:hamissoms 

Lota, Parque (3705/7309/20/8/30 km S Concepcion) 
Liolaemus tenuis pun< tatissimus 

Macul, Quebrada de ( 3329 / 7028/500- 1800/RM/ 1 8 km SE Santiago) 

Callopistes palluma palluma 

Liolaemus chiliensis 

Liolaemus fuscus 

Liolaemus lemnisi atus 

Liolaemus monti< ola monticola 

Liolaemus nigroviridis nigroviridis 

Liolaemus mtidus 

Liolaemus s<:hroederi 

Liolaemus tenuis tenuis 

Philodryas chamissonis 

Ta<:hymenis chilensis <hi lensis 

Magallanes -sensu lato- ( 5300/7040/. .. /12/12 th Region) 
Liolaemus mage I la ni< us 

Maipu (3330/7046/47/RM/15 km SW Santiago) 
Philodryas chamissonis 

Manantiales (.../.../... /I 2/. .. ) 
Liolaemus magel lani< us 



24 



Haule, Laguna del (3604/7030/2100/7/11 km Paso Pehuenche) 
Lioloemus altissimus altissimus (atipicall form) 
Liolaemus buergeri 

Melipilla ( 3341 /71 13/1 70/RM /Mel i pi 1 1 a city Westward of Santiago) 
Philodryds chamissoms 

Morado, Valle del -(sector Paninavidas}- 

(3347/7002/2800/RM/North tributary of ¥olcan River) 
Liolaemus altissimus moradoensis 
Liolaemus leopardmus valdesianu^ 
Liolaemus mgrovindis minor 
Tachymenis chilensis chilensis 

Morales, Baiios de ( 334 7/ 7005/2000/RM /North tributary of Volcan River) 
Liolaemus nigroviridis minor 
Tachymenis chilensis chilensis 

Moreno, Cerro (2400/6953/1785/2/20 km NW Antof agasta) 

Liolaemus hellmi>:hi 

Tropidurus a ta c a men sis at foot of C° Moreno 

Norrillos (3011/7133/5/4/5 km NE Guanaqueros) 
Liolaemus platei platei 

Munaipata, Cerro de ( cal91 7/ca6838/3850/l/. . . ) 
Liolaemus ornatus 

Negra, Laguna ( 3339/7008/2220/RM/60 km SE Santiago) 
Liolaemus a Itissimus moradoensis 
Liolaemus nigroviridis minor 

Negro Francisco, Laguna del (2727/6913/4125/3/12 km portezuelo Astaburuaga) 
Liolaemus eleodori 

Neltume (3915/7213/225/9/3 km NE Villarrica) 
Liolaemus <:yanog<jster <:yanogaster 
Liolaemus pictus pi'tus 

Ollague (2113/6815/3700/2/350 km NE Antofagasta) 
Liolaemus pantherinus 

Pajonales (2423/6837/3858/2/3 km N Salar Pajonales) 
Liolaemus nigriceps -insertae sedis- 

Palqui (3044/7057/500/4/5 km S Monte Patria) 
Callopistes palluma palluma 



25 



Pan de Azucar, Cerro (2807/7056/754/3/4 km Cantera del Agua) 
Lioluemus nigromu<:ulutus utucumen si s 
Lioluemus nigromuculutus nigromuculutus 

(Both subspecies are found together) 

Peine (2341/6802/2400/2/20 km E Laguna Brava) 

Lioluemus constunzue 

Lioluemus nigrovindi^ mgroroseus 

Pefialolen ( 3 328 / 70 32 /800/RM / 1 1 km St" Santiago) 
Philodryus 'humissonis 

Pefiuelas, Lago ( 3309/71 32/343/5/20 km SE Valparaiso) 
Philodryus chumissoms 

Pichidangui (3208/7132/5/4/4 km SW Quilimari) 

Cullopistes pullumu pullumu 

Lioluemus fus< u^ 

Lioluemus lemmscutus 

Lioluemus nitidus 

Lioluemus tenuis tenuis 

Lioluemus zupullurensis zupullurensis 

Philodryus rhumissonis 

Polpaico (3309/7047/580/RM/15 km SE Tiltil) 
Cullopistes pullumu pullumu 

Pucon (3916/7159/280/9/70 km SE lemuco) 
Lioluemus chiliensis 

Pudahuel ( 3321/7052/490/RM/13 km NW Santiago) 
Philodryus <:humissoms 

Punta Arenas ( 5310/7054/ 1 2/12/Capital 12th region) 
Lioluemus mugellunn us 

Punta Negra, Salar de ( 2428/6854/2960/2/E of Pigue San Carlos] 
Lioluemus schmidti 
Phrynosuuru rei<:hei 

Puritana (2243/6802/3550/2/40 km NE San Pedro de Atacama) 
Lioluemus dorbigm (=L. puritumensisJ 

Putaendo (3237/7043/813/5/13 km N San Felipe) 
Lioluemus chiliensis 
Twhymenis rhilensis chilensis 



Quintay (3312/7142/40/5/20 km S Valparaiso) 
Lioluemus kuhlmuni 



26 



Quintero (3247/7132/70/5/30 km NW Quillota) 
Lioluemus kuhlmum 

Lioluemus lemmscutus (Relictual forest) 
Philodryus <:humissonis (Relictual forest) 

Ramon, Cerro de ( 3330/7026/3050/RM/25 km E Santiago) 
Lioluemus ultissimus ultissimus 
Lioluemus leopurdmus rumonensis 
Lioluemus mgroviridis mgroviridis 
Lioluemus nitldus (exceptionally only one specimen) 
Tuchymems chilensis chilensis 

Rapel (3356/7144/40/6/42 km SW San Antonio) 
Ph llodryus chumissonis 

Renca, Cerros de ( 3324/7042/903/RM/8£ km NW Santiago) 
Lioluemus lemniscatus 

Rio Frio (2500/6904/1000/2/High plateau of Antofagasta) 
Lioluemus mgri< eps 

Ruinas ( 3105/7138/100/4/South of Maitencillo) 

Lioluemus fuscus 

Lioluemus pseudolemms< utus 

San Antonio (3335/7137/25/5/ Capital San Antonio province) 
Lioluemus lemmscutus 
Lioluemus nitidus 
Lioluemus tenuis tenuis 
Philodryus chumissoms 

San Francisco, Valle del rio ( 3320/7022/2500/RM/North tributary of Mapocho river) 
Lioluemus ultissimus altissimus 
Lioluemus leopurdmus leopurdmus 
Lioluemus schroederi 

San Gregorio ( 5239/701 3/64/1 2/N Segunda Angostura) 
Lioluemus mugellunnus 

San Luis de Macul ( 3 3 32 / 7033/ 600 /RM / 1 3 km SE Santiago) 

Cullopi^tes pullumu pullumu 

Lioluemus fuscus 

Lioluemus monti< olu montnolu 

Philodryus chumissoni^ 

San Pedro, Laguna (3650/7305/13/8/4 km SW Concepcion) 
Philodryus chumissonis 



San Pedro, Pichuante, Vergara ( 3510/7030/2200/7/Teno lake + SW Nacimiento river] 
Lioluemus buevgeri 



27 



San Pedro de Atacaia (2255/6812/2450/2/3 km SE Vilama) 

Ceiolaemus iabiani 

Liolaemus < :onstanzae 

Liolaemus mgroviridis nigroroseus 

Liolaemus pauhnae (uncertain occurrence) 
Liolaemus walkeri 
Phrynosaura audituvelata 

Santa Lucia, Cerro ( 3327/7038/600/RM/Smal 1 hill in Santiago city) 
Liolaemus tenuis tenuis 
Philodryas <hamissoms 

Santa Maria, Islote ( ca2400/ca6953/0/2/20 km NW Antofagasta) 
Tropidurus ata<:amensis 

Santa Rita ( 3340/7031/650/RM/8 km SW Puente Alto) 
Philodryas chamissoms 

Santiago, Ciudad de ( 3327/7038/600/RM/Capital of Chile) 

Liolaemus <:hi liensi s 

Liolaemus gravenhorsti 

Liolaemus s< hroederi (unusual finding) 

Liolaemus tenuis tenuis 

Philodryas chumissonis 

Santo Domingo, Rocas de (3338/7137/15/5/6 km S San Antonio) 
Liolaemus <:hiliensis 
Liolaemus nitidus 
Philodryas chumissonis 

Sewell (3405/7023/2600/6/31 km NE Rancagua) 

L lolaemus altissimu^ a Itissimus (atipical form) 

Liolaemus hernani 

Liolaemus leopardmu^ ssp. (atipical form) 

Liolaemus mgroviridis mgroviridis (atipical form) 

L lolaemus nitidus 

Taco de Lampa ( 3314/7055/500/RM/E of Polpaico and Chacabuco) 
Callopistes palluma palluma 
Liolaemus lemniscatus 
Philodryas < hamissoms 

Tagua-Tagua, San Vicente de (3426/7105/207/6/18 km NW San Fernando) 
Liolaemus lemnisi atus 
Liolaemus tenuis tenuis 
Philodryas chamissoms 

Talabre (ca231 l/ca6800/2500/2/8 km SE Zaparpilla) 

Liolaemus mgroviridis nigroroseus (very atipical form) 

Talca (3525/7139/90/ Capital 7th region) 
Liolaemus fuse us 
Liolaemus lemnis<:atus 



28 



Talca ("4 k. E de la Mina") -SIC- (3550/7047/959/7/15 km E Curillinque) 
Liolaemus chiliensis 
Liolaemus tenuis tenuis 

Talinay (3050/7137/762/4/9/ km fJW Penablanca) 
Liolaemus nitidus 

Liolaemus zapaUarensis zapaUarensis 
Ta< hymenis <:hilensis chilensis 

Taltal (2524/7029/115/2/190 km S Antof agasta) 
Liolaemus nigroma<:ulatus ata<jamensis 

Taltal, Quebrada de ( 2528/7025/750/2/0asis in costal range) 
Liolaemus donosoi 

Tara, Laguna (2259/6717/4350/2/18 km SE Laguna Blanca) 
Liolaemus schmidti 

Toconao (2311/6800/2475/2/8 km SE Zaparpilla) 
Liolaemus dorbigm (=L. puritamensis) 

Tocopilla (2250/7012/5/2/Capital Tocopilla province) 
Phyllodurtylus gerrhopygus 
Tropidurus atacamensis 

Totoralillo (3004/7122/5/4/14 km W Guanaqueros) 
Lioluemus kuhlmam 

Trapa-Trapa (3744/7113/1400/8/70 km E Santa Barbara) 
Lioluemus tenuis tenuis 

Tulahuen (3101/7044/1096/4/33 km NE Combarbala) 
Liolaemus <hiliensis 
Liolaemus nitidus 
Liolaemus platei platei 

Tunca (3423/7106/2007/6/7 km of Peumo) 
Liolaemus s< hroeden 

Ultiia Esperanza (Laguna Azul) 5130/7300/100/12/Coastal of Seno Ultima Esperanza! 
Diplolaemus darwini 
Liolaemus magellani< us 



Valdivia ( 3949/7314/10/l0/Capital of Valdivia province! 
Liolaemus pi< tus pirtus 
Pristida< tylus torquatus 



29 



"Valdiviano, Bosque" (.../.../... /9th and 10tn/...) 
Pristidd'tylus torquatu^ 

Valparaiso, Ciudad de ( 3303/7107/194/5/Principal port of Chile) 
Lioluemus chilien^i^ 

Vilches Alto (3536/7105/1150/7/9 km SE Vilches) 

Lioluemui, i.hihen^i^ 

Lioluemus lemm^,<:utus 

Liuluemus pictus pi< tus (atipical form) 

Lioldemus s<:hroederi 

Lioldtemus tenuis tenuis 

Pristido<:tylus torquutus 

Philodryas ^humi^^onn, 

Ta< hymenis chilensis chilensis 

Villarrica (3916/7207/220/9/68 km E lemuco) 
Liolaemu* cyunoguster cyunogo^ter 
Lioluemus ^chroeden (uncertain locality) 

Yalquincha, Quebrada de ( 2227/6856/2250/2/ca Calama) 
Tropidurus there^ioide^ (?) 

Zapallar (3133/7106/450/4/10 km NE Illapel) 
Lioldiemus r:hil lensis 




lb 



BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SCIENTIFIC NAME INDEX 
TO AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES 
IN THE 
PUBLICATIONS OF THE 
BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 
BULLETIN 1-8, 1918-1988 
AND 
PROCEEDINGS 1-100, 1882-1987 



fi 



pp 




ERNEST A. LINER 
Houma, Louisiana 




SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL INFORMATION 
SERVICE 
NO. 92 



1992 



SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL 
INFORMATION 
SERVICE 



The SHIS series publishes and distributes translations, 
bibliographies, indices, and similar items judged useful 
to individuals interested in the biology of amphibians 
and reptiles, but unlikely to be published in the normal 
technical journals. Single copies are distributed free 
to interested individuals. Libraries, herpetological 
associations, and research laboratories are invited to 
exchange their publications with the Division of 
Amphibians and Reptiles. 

We wish to encourage individuals to share their 
bibliographies, translations, etc. with other 
herpetologists through the SHIS series. If you have 
such items please contact George Zug for instructions on 
preparation and submission. Contributors receive 50 
free copies. 

Please address all requests for copies and inquiries to 
George Zug, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, 
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington DC 20560 USA. Please include 
a self-addressed mailing label with requests. 



INTRODUCTION 

The present alphabetical listing by author (s) covers all 
papers bearing on herpetology that have appeared in Volume 1-100, 
1882-1987, of the Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington and the four numbers of the Bulletin series concerning 
reference to amphibians and reptiles. 

From Volume 1 through 82 (in part) , the articles were issued 
as separates with only the volume number, page numbers and year 
printed on each. Articles in Volume 82 (in part) through 89 were 
issued with volume number, article number, page numbers and year. 
Beginning with Volume 90, the Proceedings became a quarterly 
journal citing the volume number, issue number, page numbers and 
the year. Thus, the seeming inconsistencies in citations derive 
from the historically variable citation within the Proceedings. 
The Bulletin has been issued in numbers only. 

All junior authors are listed alphabetically and cross 
referenced to the senior author for ease in locating their 
publications. As a result any article in this bibliography can 
be located by knowing the title or the author (s) . All articles 
with original names are preceded by an * (asterisk) . 

All scientific names of amphibians and reptiles are listed 
alphabetically and referenced to the article (s) where they are 
mentioned. No names in bibliographic references are included. 
All original spellings in the articles have been maintained 
except those that ended with i or ij.. Double ri has been 
substituted when both have appeared. Proceedings articles are 
cited with only the volume and first page number; Bulletin 
articles are preceded by a "B". All original names in the 
Proceedings are indicated in bold. No original names were 
proposed in the Bulletin. This arrangement makes it easy to 
distinguish articles with original names. The page number 
identifies the article, and not the actual page of occurrence of 
the name. 

The author wishes to thank C. Gans for suggesting this 
project and for suggesting the addition of a scientific name 
index G. R. Zug and W. R. Heyer. 



BULLETIN 

Aldrich, John W. 1980. The Biological Society of Washington : A 
centennial history 1880-1980. 4: 1-40. 

Burke, Margaret Gould. 1988. Status, impacted conservation 
implications of feral goats on Aldabra Atoll. Pp. 129-138. 
In Results of recent research on Aldabra Atoll, Indian 
Ocean. Ed., Brian Kensley. 8: 1-138. 

Gardner, A. S. 1988. Day geckos of the genus Phelsuma in the 

outer Seychelles. Pp. 101-107. In Results of recent research 
on Aldabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. Ed., Brian Kensley. 8: 1-138. 

Jones, Meredith L. , ed. 1972. The Panamic biota: Some 
observations prior to a sea-level canal. 2: VI-270. 

Kensley, Brian, ed. 1988. Results of recent research on Aldabra 

Atoll, Indian Ocean. 8: 1-138. 
Kropach, Chaim. 1972. Pelamis platurus as a potential colonizer 

of the Caribbean Sea. Pp. 267-269. In The Panamic biota: 

Some observations prior to a sea-level canal. Ed., Meredith 

L. Jones. 2: VI-270. 

McAtee, W. L. 1918. A sketch of the natural history of the 

District of Columbia together with an indexed edition of the 
U. S. Geological Survey's 1917 map of Washington and 
vicinity. 1: 1-119. 

Mortimer, Jeanne A. 1988. Green turtle nesting at Aldabra Atoll 
— Population estimates and trends. Pp. 116-128. In Results 
of recent research on Aldabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. Ed., 
Brian Kensley. 8: 1-138. 

Myers, Charles W. 1972. The status of herpetology in Panama. 
Pp. 199-209. In The Panamic biota: Some observations prior 
to a sea-level canal. Ed., Meredith L. Jones. 2: VI-270. 

Swingland, Ian R. 1988. The ecology and conservation of 

Aldabran giant tortoises. Pp. 108-115. In in Results of 
recent research on Aldabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. Ed., Brian 
Kensley. 8: 1-138. 



PROCEEDINGS 

Achaval, Federico, see Orejas-Miranda, Braulio, George R. Zug and 

Daniel Y. E. Garcia, 1977. 
Alcala, Angel C. , see Brown, Walter C. , 1962, 1963, 1967, 1977 

and 1982. 
Amaral, Afranio do. 1926. Studies of neotropical Ophidia. III. On 

Helminthophis f lavoterminatus (Peters, 1857). 39: 123-126. 

*Barbour, Thomas. 1903a. A new species of flying lizard from 

Sarawak. 16: 59-60 

* . 1903b. Two new species of chamaeleon. 16: 61-62. 

* . 1904. A new batrachian from Sarawak, Borneo. 17: 51-52. 

* . 1908. Some new Amphibia Salientia. 21: 189-190. 

* . 1909. Corrections regarding the names of two recently 

described Amphibia Salientia. 22: 89. 
* . 1910a. A new genus of Amphibia Salientia from Dutch New 

Guinea. 23: 89-90. 

1910b. A note regarding the green Anolis from the 

northern Bahamas.. 23: 99-100. 

1910c. Eleutherodactylus ricordii in Florida. 23: 100. 

* • 1910d. A new colubrine snake from Java. 23: 169-170. 

* • 1911a. New lizards and a new toad from the Dutch East 

Indies, with notes on other species. 24: 15-22. 
* . 1911b. A new race of chameleons from British East 

Africa. 24: 219-220. 

1912a. Two preoccupied names. 25: 187. 
* • 1912b. Physiqnathus cocincinus and its subspecies. 25: 

191-192. 
* • 1913. Reptiles and amphibians from eastern Sudan. 26: 

145-150. 

* • 1914a. A new snake from northern Brazil. 27: 199-200. 

* . 1914b. On some Australasian reptiles. 27: 201-206. 

* 1915a. Recent notes regarding West Indian reptiles and 

amphibians. 28: 71-78. 

* . 1915b. A new snake from southern Peru. 28: 149-150. 

* • 1916a. A new Tantilla from Mexico. 29: 93-94. 

* . 1916b. Additional notes on West Indian reptiles and 

amphibians. 29: 215-220. 

1916c. Amphibians and reptiles from Tobago. 29: 221-224. 
* . 1917a. Notes on the herpetology of the Virgin Islands. 

30: 97-104. 

1917b. A new Antillean Sphaerodactvlus . 30: 163-164. 
1919. A new rock iguana from Porto Rico. 32: 145-148. 
* • 1921. On a small collection of reptiles from Argentina. 

34: 139-142. 

* . 1922a. Three new neotropical Salientia. 35: 111-114. 

* • 1922b. A new snake from Southwest Africa. 35: 229-230. 

* . 1924. A new Gymnophis from Colombia. 37: 125-126. 

* . 1925. New neotropical lizards. 38: 101-102. 

* . 1927. Two new Borneon snakes. 40: 127-128. 

* . 1938. Notes on " Nectophryne " . 51: 191-196. 

* and E.R. Dunn. 1921. Herpetological novelties. 34:157-162. 

* and C.T. Ramsden. 1916. A new Anolis from Cuba. 29: 19-20. 

Barton, A.J. 1956. A statistical study of Thamnophis brachvstoma 






(Cope) with comments on the kinship of T. butleri (Cope) . 

69: 71-82. 
*Baylor, Edward R. and L. C. Stuart. 1961. A new race of Bufo 

valliceps from Guatemala. 74: 195-202. 
*Bishop, Sherman C. 1934. Description of a new salamander from 

Oregon, with notes on related species. 47: 169-172. 
* and Margaret R. Wright. 1937. A new neotenic salamander 

from Texas. 50: 141-144. 
*Brady, M. K. 1932. A new snake from Florida. 45: 5-8. 
. 1933. The third specimen of Elaphe rosacea (Cope). 46: 

153-154. 

1937. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. VI. 

Reptiles and amphibians. 50: 137-140. 
and Francis Harper. 1935. A Florida subspecies of 

Pseudacris nigrita (Hylidae) . 48: 107-110. 
*Brame, Arden H. , Jr. and David B. Wake. 1962. A new 

plethodontid salamander (genus Magnadigita from the 

Cordillera Occidental of Colombia. 75: 71-76. 
and . 1963. Redescription of the plethodontid 

salamander Bolitoglossa lignicolor (Peters) , with remarks on 

the status of B. palustris Taylor. 76: 289-296. 
Brimley, C. S. 1909. Some notes on the zoology of Lake Ellis, 

Craven County, North Carolina, with special reference to 

herpetology. 22: 129-138. 

1910. Records of some reptiles and batrachians from the 

southeastern United States. 23: 9-18. 
* . 1912. Notes on the salamanders of the North Carolina 

Mountains with descriptions of two new forms. 25: 135-140. 
1917. The two forms of red Spelerpes occurring at 

Raleigh, N. C. 30: 87-88. 
*Brown, Bryce C. and Hobart M. Smith. 1942. A new subspecies of 

Mexican coral snake. 55: 63-66. 
Brown, Bryce C. , see also Smith, Hobart M. , 1947. 
*Brown, Walter C. and Angel C. Alcala. 1962. A new lizard of 

the genus Gekko from the Philippine Islands. 75: 67-70. 
* and . 1963. Additions to the leiolopismid lizards 

known from the Philippines, with descriptions of a new 

species and subspecies. 76: 69-80. 
* and . 1967. A new frog of the genus Oreophryne and a 

list of amphibians from Camiguin Island, Philippines. 80: 

65-68. 
* and . 1977. A new frog of the genus Rana from the 

Philippines. 90 (3): 669-675. 
* and . 1982. A new cave Platymantis (Amphibia: 

Ranidae) from the Philippine Islands. 95 (2): 386-391. 
* and James I. Menzies. 1978. A new Platymantis (Amphibia: 

Ranidae) from New Ireland, with notes on the amphibians of 

the Bismark Archipelago. 91 (4) : 965-971. 
* , John C. Pernetta and D. Watling. 1980. A new lizard of 

the genus Emoia (Scincidae) from the Fiji Islands. 93 (2): 

359-356. 
* and Discoro S. Rabor. 1967. A new sphenomorphid lizard 

(Scincidae) from the Philippine Islands. 80: 69-72. 
* and Michael J. Tyler. 1968. Frogs of the genus 

Platymantis (Ranidae) from New Britain with descriptions of 



new species. 81: 69-86. 
*Burger, W. Leslie, Hobart M. Smith and Floyd E. Potter, Jr. 

1950. Another neotenic Eurycea from the Edwards Plateau. 63: 

51-58. 
*Burt, Charles E. 1929. The genus of teiid lizards, Verticaria 

Cope, 1869, considered as a synonym of Cnemidophorus Wagler, 

1830, with a key to the primitive genera of the Teiidae. 42: 

153-156. 

19 31a. A report on some amphibians and reptiles from 

Kansas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma. 44: 11-16. 

1931b. The status of the spotted racerunner, 

Cnemidophorus sexlineatus qularis (Baird and Girard) . 44: 

73-78. 
. 1932. The status of the horned lizard Phrynosoma 

brevicornis . described from Texas by E. G. Boulenger (1916) 

45: 73-74. 

*Campden-Main, Simon M. 1970. The identity of Oligodon cyclurus 

(Cantor, 1839) and revalidation of Oligodon brevicauda 

(Steindachner, 1867) (Serpentes: Colubridae) . 82 (58) : 763-766 . 
*Cannatella, David C. 1980. Two new species of Centrolenella 

from Bolivia (Anura: Centrolenidae) . 93 (3): 714-724. 
1983. Synonymy and distribution of Phyllomedusa 

boliviana Boulenger (Anura: Hylidae) . 96 (1): 59-66. 
• 1985. The systematic status of Syrrhophus iuninensis 

Shreve (Anura: Leptodactylidae) . 98 (4): 774-777. 
Clark, Austin H. 1930. Records of the wood tortoise ( Clemmys 

insculpta ) in the vicinity of the District of Columbia. 43: 

13-16. 
Clark, Hubert Lyman. 1903. The short-mouthed snake (Eutaenia 

brachystoma Cope) in southern Michigan. 16: 83-88. 
Cliff, Frank S., see Savage, Jay M. , 1954. 
*Cochran, Doris M. 192 3a. Two new species of Calamaria from 

Borneo. 36: 91-92. 
* , 1923b. A new species of Eleutherodactylus from the 

Dominican Republic. 36: 93-94. 
* • 1927a. A new genus of anguid lizard from Haiti. 40: 91- 

92. 
* • 1927b. New reptiles and batrachians collected by Dr. 

Hugh M. Smith in Siam. 40: 179-192. 
* • 1928a. A new species of Chamael inorops from Haiti. 41: 

45-48. 
* • 1928b. A new genus and species of lizard, Hispaniolus 

pratensis . from the Haitian Republic. 41: 49-52. 
* . 1928c. The herpetological collections made in Haiti and 

its adjoining islands by Walter J. Eyerdam. 41: 53-60. 

1928d. The identity of Werner's Dromicus w-niqrum . 41: 

127-128. 
* . 1928e. A second species of Deiroptyx from Cuba. 41: 

169-170. 
* . 1931. New reptiles from Beata Island, Dominican 

Republic. 44: 89-92. 
* . 1932a. Two new subspecies of lizards of the genus 

Leiocephalus from Hispaniola. 45: 177-182. 
* . 1932b. Two new lizards from Hispaniola. 45: 183-188. 



* . 1932c. A new snake, Ialtris parishi , from the Republic 

of Haiti. 45: 189-190. 
* . 1932d. A new frog, Eleutherodactylus wetmorei . from the 

Republic of Haiti. 45: 191-194. 
* . 1933. A new gecko from Haiti, Aristelliqer expectatus . 

46: 33-36. 

* . 1938a. Diagnosis of new frogs from Brazil. 51: 41-42. 

* . 1938b. A new species of frog from Haiti. 51: 93-94. 

* . 1938c. Reptiles and amphibians from the Lesser Antilles 

collected by Dr. S. T. Danforth. 51: 147-156. 
Cocroft, Reginald B. , see Heyer, W. Ronald, 1986. 
Cohen, Daniel M. and Roger F. Cressey. , eds. 1969. Papers 

presented at a symposium on natural history collections- 
past-present-future. 82: 559-762. 
*Conant, Roger. 1963. Another new water snake of the genus 

Natrix from the Mexican Plateau. 76: 169-172. 
* . 1984. A new subspecies of the pit viper, Aqkistrodon 

bilineatus (Reptilia: Viperidae) , from Central America. 

97(1): 135-141. 
Cooke, Wells W. 1910. Incubation period of box turtle eggs. 

23: 124. 
Cressey, Roger F., see Cohen, Daniel M. , 1969. 
*Crombie, Ronald I. 1977. A new species of frog of the genus 

Eleutherodactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) from the 

Cockpit County of Jamaica. 90 (2):194-204. 
Crombie, Ronald I., see also Schwartz, Albert, 1975. 
Crumly, Charles R. 1983. An annotated checklist of the fossil 

tortoises of China and Mongolia. 96 (3):567-580. 

Daugherty, Charles H. , see Heyer, W. Ronald and Linda R. Maxon, 

1982. 
*Davis, William B. 1953. A new horned lizard, genus Phrynosoma . 

from Mexico. 66:27-30. 
* and James R. Dixon. 1958. A new Coleonyx from Texas. 71: 

149-152. 
and . 1959. Snakes of the Chilpancingo region, 

Mexico. 72: 79-92. 
and . 1961. Reptiles (exclusive of snakes) of the 

Chilpancingo region, Mexico. 74: 37-56. 
DeWeese, James E. , see Savage, Jay M. , 1980. 
Diment, M. Judith, see Heyer, W. Ronald, 1974. 
*Dixon, James R. 1968. A new species of gecko (Sauria: 

Gekkonidae) from the Bay Islands, Honduras. 81: 419-426. 
* . 1985. A new species of the colubrid snake genus Liophis 

from Brazil. 98 (92): 295-302. 
* , Chesley A. Ketchersid and Carl S. Lieb. 1972. A new 

species of Sceloporus ( undulatus group: Sauria, Iguanidae) 

from Mexico. 84 (38): 307-312. 
Dixon, James R. , see also Davis, William B. , 1958, 1959 and 1961. 
Duellman, William E. 1978. New species of leptodactylid frogs 

of the genus Eleutherodactylus from the Cosnipata Valley, 

Peru. 91 (2): 418-430. 
* and John E. Simmons. 1977. A new species of 

Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the 

Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. 90 (1): 60-65. 



Dunn, E. R. 1915. The variations of a brood of watersnakes. 
28: 61-68. 

* . 1916. Two new salamanders of the genus Desmognathus . 

29: 73-76. 

* . 1919. Two new crotaline snakes from western Mexico. 32: 

213-216. 

* . 1920a. A new Geophis from Mexico. 33: 127. 

* . 1920b. Some reptiles and amphibians from Virginia, North 

Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama. 33: 129-138. 

* . 1921. Two new Central American salamanders. 34: 143- 

146. 

* . 1922a. A new salamander from Mexico. 35: 5-6. 

* . 1922b. Two new South American snakes. 35: 219-220. 

1922c. Notes on some tropical Ranae. 35: 221-222. 
1922d. Note on Lampropeltis mexicana (Garman) . 35: 226. 
1923. Some snakes from northwestern Peru. 36: 185-188. 
1927. A recent misuse of family names. 40: 123-124. 
1932a. Notes on blind snakes from lower Central America. 
45: 173-176. 

1932b. The status of Tropidoclonion lineatum . 45: 195- 
198. 

* . 1933. A new lizard from Nicaragua. 46: 67-68. 

1937a. The status of Hvla evittata Miller. 50: 9-10. 
1937b. Notes on some Colombian reptiles. 50: 11-14. 

* . 1939. A new pit viper from Costa Rica. 52: 165. 

1946. A small herpetological collection from eastern 
Peru. 59: 17-20. 
Dunn, E. R. , see also Barbour, Thomas, 1921. 

Duval, Julian J., see Schwartz, Albert and Eugene D. Graham, Jr., 
1979. 

♦Edwards, Stephen R. 1971. Taxonomic notes on South American 

Colestethus with descriptions of two new species (Amphibia: 

Dendrobatidae) . 84 (18): 147-162. 
Ernst, Carl H. and Evelyn M. Ernst. 1980. Relationships between 

North American turtles of the genus Chrysemys complex as 

indicated by their endoparasitic helminths. 93 (2) : 339-345. 
and James A. Fowler. 1977. Taxonomic status of the 

turtle, Chrysemys picta in the northern peninsula of 

Michigan. 90 (3): 685-689. 
* and William P. McCord. Two new turtles from southeast 

Asia. 100 (3): 624-628. 
Ernst, Evelyn M. , see Ernst, Carl H. , 1980. 
Ewing, H. E. 1926. The common box-turtle, a natural host for 

chiggers. 39: 19-20. 

Formas, J. R. 1980. The identity of the frog Eupsophus 

vanzolinii from Ramadillas, Nahuelbuta Range, southern Chile. 

93 (4) : 920-927. 

1985. The voices and relationships of the Chilean frogs 

Eupsophus migueli and E. calcaratus (Amphibia: Anura: 

Leptodactylidae) . 98 (2): 411-415. 
and Alberto Veloso. 1982. Taxonomy of Bufo venustus 

Philippi, 1899 (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from central Chile. 

95 (4) : 688-693. 



and M. Ines Vera. 1982. The status of two Chilean frogs 

of the genus Eupsophus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) . 95 (3) : 

594-601. 
Fowler, James A. 1943a. A new locality record for Holbrook's 

salamander in the District of Columbia vicinity. 56: 167. 
1943b. Another false map turtle from the District of 

Columbia vicinity. 56: 168. 

1944. The cave salamander in Virginia. 57: 31-32. 

1945. Notes on Cemophora coccinea (Blumenbach) in 
Maryland and the District of Columbia vicinity. 58: 89-90. 

1946a. A new locality record for Eumeces laticeps 
(Schneider) in Maryland. 59: 165. 

194 6b. Partial neoteny in a common newt. 59: 166. 
Fowler, James A., see also Ernst, Carl H. , 1977. 
Franz, Richard, see Schwartz, Albert, 1976. 
Frazier, J. C. 1986. Epizoic barnacles on pleurodiran turtles: 

Is the relationship rare? 99 (3): 472-477. 
Frost, Darrel R. 1986. A new Colostethus (Anura: Dendrobatidae) 
from Ecuador. 99 (2): 214-217. 

Garcia, Daniel Y. E. , see Orejas-Miranda, Braulio, George R. Zug 

and Federico Achaval, 1977. 
*Garrido, Orlando H. and Albert Schwartz. 1972. The Cuban 

Anolis spectrum complex (Sauria, Iguanidae) . 85 (45) : 509- 

522. 
and . 1982; A new species of Sphaerodactylus 

Reptilia: Sauria: Gekkonidae) from eastern Cuba. 95 (2): 

392-397. 
Garrido, Orlando H. , see also Schwartz, Albert, 1968, 1974 and 

175. 
Gill, Theodore. 1885. The principles of zoogeography. 1: 1-39. 
Gilmore, C. W. 1912. Fossil crocodiles from the Canal Zone. 

25:94. 
*Gloyd, Howard K. 1969. Two additional subspecies of North 

American crotalid snakes, genus Aqkistrodon . 82: 219-232. 
* . 1972a. A subspecies of Aqkistrodon bilineatus 

(Serpentes: Crotalidae) on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. 84 

(40) : 327-334. 
* . 1972b. The Korean snakes of the genus Aqkistrodon 

(Crotalidae). 85 (49): 557-578. 
* . 1977. Descriptions of new taxa of crotalid snakes from 

Ceylon (Sri Lanka). 90 (4): 1002-1015. 
* . 1978. A new generic name for the hundred-pace viper. 

91(4) : 963-964. 
Graham, Eugene D. , Jr., see Schwartz, Albert and Julian J. 

Duval, 1979. 
Green, N. Bayard, see Netting, M. Graham and Neil D. Richmond, 

1946. 
*Gressitt, J. Lindsley. 1936. New reptiles from Formosa and 

Hainan. 49: 117-121. 

* . 1937. A new snake from southeastern China. 50: 125-128. 

* . 1938. A new burrowing frog and a new lizard from Hainan 

Island. 51: 127-130. 
* . 1938. Some amphibians from Formosa and the Ryu Kyu 

Islands, with description of a new species. 51: 159-164. 



Grobman, Arnold G. 1945. The identity of Desmoqnathus phoca 
(Matthes) and of Desmoqnathus monticola Dunn. 58: 39-44. 

* . 1949. Some recent collections of Plethodon from Virginia 

with the description of a new form. 62: 135-142. 

Harding, Keith A. 1982. Courtship display in a Bornean frog. 

95(3): 621-624. 
Hardy, Jerry David, Jr., see Tuck, Robert G. , Jr., 1973. 
*Harper, Francis. 1932. A new Texas subspecies of the lizard 

genus Holbrookia . 45: 15-18. 

1935. The name of the gopher frog. 48: 79-82. 
* . 1947. A new cricket frog (Acris) from the middle western 

states. 60: 39-40. 

1955. The type locality of Hyla triseriata Wied. 68: 
155-156. 

1956. Amphibians and reptiles of the Ungava Peninsula. 
69: 93-104. 

1963. Amphibians and reptiles of Keewatin and northern 

Manitoba. 76: 159-168. 
Harper, Francis, see also Brady, Maurice K. , 1935. 
Harrison, Julian R. , III, see Schwartz, Albert, 1956. 
Hay, W. P. 1902a. The color of the fully adult Ophibolus 

rhombomaculata Holbrook. 15; 90. 

1902b. A list of the batrachians and reptiles of the 

District of Columbia and vicinity. 15: 121-145. 

1902c. On the distribution of Hyla evittata Miller. 20: 

65. 
Henshaw, H. W. 1907. An extension of the range of the wood 

tortoise. 20: 65. 
Hensley, M. Max, see Smith, Philip W. , 1957. 
*Heyer, W. Ronald. 1974. Vanzolinius . a new genus proposed for 

Leptodactylus discodactylus (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae) . 

87(11) : 81-90. 
* . 1975. Adenomera lutzi (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) , a new 

species of frog from Guyana. 88 (28): 315-318. 
. 1976. A discriminant function analysis of the frogs of 

the genus Adenomera (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) . 89 (51) : 

581-592. 
. 1980. The calls and taxonomic positions of Hyla qiesleri 

and Ololyqon opalina (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) . 93 (3):655- 

661. 
* . 1982. Two new species of the frog genus Hylodes from 

Caparao, Minas Gerais, Brazil (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) . 

95(2) : 377-385. 
* . 1983a. Clarification of the name Rana mystacea Spix, 

1824, Leptodactylus amazonicus Heyer, 1978, and a description 

of a new species, Leptodactylus spixi (Amphibia: 

Leptodactylidae). 96 (2): 270-272. 
* . 1983b. Notes on the frog genus Cycloramphus (Amphibia: 

Leptodactylidae) , with descriptions of two new species. 

96(3): 548-559. 
* . 1985. New species of frogs from Boraceia, Sao Paulo, 

Brazil. 98 (3): 657-671. 
* . and Reginald B. Cocroft. 1986. Description of two new 

species of Hylodes from the Atlantic forests of Brazil 



10 



(Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) . 99 (1): 100-109. 
, Charles H. Daugherty and Linda R. Maxon. 1982. 

Systematic resolution of the genera of the Crinia complex 

(Amphibia: Anura: Myobatrachidae) . 95 (3): 423-427. 
and M. Judith Diment. 1974. The karyotypes of Vanzolinius 

discodactylus and comments on usefulness of karyotypes in 

determining relationships in the Leptodactylus complex 

(Amphibia, Leptodactylidae). 87 (29): 327-336. 
and James A. Peters. 1971. The frog genus Leptodactylus 

in Ecuador. 84 (19): 163-170. 
* and William F. Pyburn. 1983. Leptodactylus riveroi , a new 

frog species from Amazonia, South America (Anura: 

Leptodactylidae). 96 (3): 560-566. 
Hoffman, Richard L. 1944a. Eumeces anthracinus (Baird) in 

Virginia. 57: 123-124. 

1944b. Notes on Cnemidophorus sexlineatus in Virginia. 

57: 124-125. 

1945. Range extension for Eumeces inexpectatus Taylor. 

58: 131-132. 
*Holman, J. Alan. 1973. A hugh new xenosaurid lizard from the 

Upper Miocene of Nebraska. 86 (8): 105-112. 
Hoogmoed, Marinus S., see Lynch, John D. , 1977. 
Howe, Reginald Heber, Jr. 1904. Spelerpes porphyriticus in New 

Hampshire. 17: 102. 

*Kellogg, Remington. 1928. An apparently new Hyla from El 

Salvador. 41: 123-124. 
Kennedy, J. P., see Pyburn, William F., 1961. 

Ketchersid, Chesley A., see Dixon, James R. and Carl S. Lieb, 
Knobloch, Irving, W. , see Taylor, Edward H. , 1940. 

Laufe, Leonard E., see Smith, Hobart M. , 1945. 

Lieb, Carl S., see Dixon, James R. and Chesley A. Ketchersid, 

1972. 
*Loveridge, Arthur. 1929. A new Anadia from Colombia with 

remarks on other members of the genus. 42: 99-102. 
* . 1932a. New frogs of the genera Arthroleptis and 

Hyperolius from Tanganyika Territory. 45: 61-64. 
* . 1932b. New opisthoglyphous snakes of the genera 

Crotaphopeltis and Trimerorhinus from Angola and Kenya 

Colony. 45: 83-86. 
* . 1932c. New races of a skink (Siaphos) and frog ( Xenopus ) 

from the Unganda Proctertorate. 45: 113-116. 
* . 1932d. A new worm snake of the genus Leptotyphlops from 

Guerrero, Mexico. 45: 151-152. 
* . 1935. New geckos of the genus Lygodactylus from 

Somaliland, Sudan, Kenya, and Tanganyika. 48: 195-200. 
* . 1936a. New geckos of the genus Hemidactylus from 

Zanzibar and Manda islands. 49: 59-62. 
* . 1936b. New tree snakes of the genera Thrasops and 

Dendraspis from Kenya Colomy. 49: 63-66. 
* . 1938a. New snakes of the genera Calamaria . Bunqarus and 

Trimeresurus from Mount Kinabalu, North Borneo. 51: 43-46. 
* . 1938b. A new freshwater snake ( Chersvdrus qranulatus 

luzonensis ) from the Philippines. 51: 209. 



11 



* . 1938c. A new frog (H yperolius power i ) from Natal, South 

Africa. 51: 213-214. 
* . 1939. A new skink ( Leiolopisma hawaiiensis ) from 

Honolulu. 52: 1-2. 

* . 1941a. New geckos (Phelsuma and Lygodactylus ) . snake 

( Leptotyphlops ) , and frog ( Phrynobatrachus ) from Pemba 

Island, East Africa. 54: 175-178. 
* . 1941b. An undescribed skink ( Lygosoma ) from New 

Caledonia. 54: 193-194. 
* . 1941c. Bogertia lutzae - A new genus and species of 

gecko from Bahia, Brazil. 54: 195-196. 
* . 1944a. Remarks on the gekkonid genera Homopholis and 

Platypholis with description of a new race. 57: 1-4. 

1944b. Errata. (A new elapid snake of the genus Maticora 

from Sarawak, Borneo). 57: VI. 
* . 1944c. A new teiid lizard of the genus Ecpleopus from 

Brazil. 57: 97-98. 
* . 1944d. A new elapid snake of the genus Maticora from 

Sarawak, Borneo. 57: 105-106. 
* . 1945a. New scincid lizards of the genera Tropidophorus 

and Ly go soma from New Guinea. 58: 47-52. 
* • 1945b. New tree-frogs of the genera Hyla and Nyctimystes 

from New Guinea. 58: 53-58. 
* . 1945c. A new blind snake ( Typhlops tovelli) from Darwin, 

Australia. 58: 111. 
* • 1946. A new worm lizard ( Ancylocranium barkeri ) from 

Tanganyika Territory. 59: 73-74. 
* • 1950a. A new agamid lizard (Agama kirkii fitzsimonsi ) 

from southern Rhodesia. 63: 127-130. 
* . 1950b. New frogs of the genera Cvclorana and Hyla from 

southeastern Australia. 63: 131-138. 
* . 1951. A new gecko of the genus Gymnodactylus from 

Serpent Island. 64: 91-92. 
*Lowe, Charles H. , Jr. 1954. A new salamander (genus Ambystoma ) 

from Arizona. 67: 243-246. 
* and William H. Woodin, III. 1954. A new racer (genus 

Masticophis ) from Arizona and Sonora, Mexico. 67: 247-250. 
*Lynch, John F. 1967. Two new Eleutherodactylus from western 

Mexico (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) . 80: 211-218. 
* • 1970. A new eleutherodactyline frog from Amazonian 

Ecuador. 83 (21): 221-226. 
* • 1974. A new species of Eleutherodactylus (Amphibia: 

Leptodactylidae) from the Pacific lowlands of Ecuador. 

87(33) : 381-388. 
* • 1976.. A new high Andean slope species of 

Eleutherodactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) from Colombia 

and Ecuador. 88 (32): 351-354. 
* • 1979. A new species of Eleutherodactylus from northern 

Ecuador (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae). 92 (3): 498-504. 
* . 1980. Two new species of earless frogs allied to 

Eleutherodactylus surdus (Leptodactylidae) from the Pacific 

of the Ecuadorian Andes. 93 (2): 327-338. 
* and Marinus S. Hoogmoed. 1977. Two new species of 

Eleutherodactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) from 

northeastern South America. 90 (2): 424-439. 



12 



* and Roy W. McDiarmid. 1987. Two new species of 

Eleutherodactvlus (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae) from 

Bolivia. 100 (2) : 337-346. 
* and Pedro M. Ruiz-Carranza. 1982. A new genus and species 

of poison dart frog (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae) from the Andes 

of northern Colombia. 95 (3): 557-562. 
Lynch, John F. , see also Pyburn, William F., 1981. 

Maslin, T. Paul, see Myers, George S., 1948. 

Maxson, Linda R. , see Heyer, W. Ronald and Charles H. 

Daugherty, 1982. 
McAtee, W. L. 1907. A list of the mammals, reptiles and 

batrachians of Monroe County, Indiana. 20: 1-16. 

1944. Timber rattlesnakes in the District of Columbia 

region. 57: 33. 
McCauley, Robert H. , Jr., see Smith, Hobart M. , 1948. 
McCord, William P., see Ernst, Carl H. , 1987. 
*McCranie, James R. and Larry David Wilson. 1986. A new species 

of red-eyed treefrog of the Hvla uranochroa group (Anura: 

Hylidae) from northern Honduras. 99 (1): 51-55. 
McDiarmid, Roy W. , see Lynch, John F. , 1987; Thomas, Richard and 

Fred G. Thompson, 1985. 
Meanley, Brooke. 1951a. Carpenter frog, Rana virqatipes . on the 

coastal plain of Maryland. 64: 59. 

1951b. Eumeces laticeps (Schneider) in the Alleghanian 

Zone of Maryland. 64: 59-60. 

1951c. Natrix erythrogaster in the Austroparian Zone of 

Maryland. 64: 60. 
Menzies, James I., see Brown, Walter C. , 1978. 
Merriam, C. Hart. 1892. The geographical distribution of life 

in North America with special reference to the Mammalia. 7: 

1-64. 
*Miller, Gerrit S., Jr., 1899. A new treefrog from the District 

of Columbia. 13: 75-78. 

1902. A fully adult specimen of Ophibolus 

rhombomaculatus . 15: 36. 
*Mittleman, M. B. 1941. A new lizard of the genus Uta from 

Arizona. 54: 165-168. 
* . 1947. Geographic variation in the seasnake, Hydrophis 

ornatus (Gray). 60: 1-8. 
* . 1949. American Caudata. VI. The races of Eurycea 

bislineata . 62: 89-96. 
* and George S. Myers. 1949. Geographic variation in the 

ribbed frog, Ascaphus truei . 62: 57-68. 
Myers, George S. 1930a. Notes on some amphibians in western 

North America. 43: 55-64. 

1930b. The status of the southern California toad, Bufo 

californicus (Camp). 43: 73-78. 
* . 1942a. A new frog from the Anamallai Hills with notes on 

other frogs and some snakes from south India. 55: 49-56. 
* . 1942b. A new frog of the genus Micrixalis from 

Travancore. 55: 71-74. 
* . 1942c. Notes on some frogs from Peru and Ecuador. 

55:151-156. 
* and T. Paul Maslin. 1948. The California plethodontid 



13 

salamander, Aneides falvipunctatus (Strauch) , with 
description of a new subspecies and notes on other western 
Aneides . 61: 127-138. 
Myers, George s. , see also Mittleman, M. B. , 1949. 

Netting, M. Graham, N. Bayard Green and Neil D. Richmond. 1946. 

The occurrence of Wehrle's salamander, Plethodon wehrleri 

Fowler and Dunn in Virginia. 59: 157-160. 
*Noble, G. K. 1916. Description of a new eublepharid lizard 

from Costa Rica. 29: 87-88. 
* . 1924. Some neotropical batrachians preserved in the 

United States National Museum with a note on the secondary 

sexual characters of these and other amphibians. 37: 65-7 2. 

*Orejas-Miranda, Braulio R. and George R. Zug. 1974. A new 
tricolor Leptotyphlops (Reptilia: Serpentes) from Peru. 
87(16): 167-174. 

, , Daniel Y. E. Garcia and Federico Achaval. 1977. 

Scale organs on the head of Leptotyphlops (Reptilia, 
Serpentes): A variational study. 90 (2): 209-213. 

Pack, Herbert J. 1921. Food habits of Sceloporus qraciosus 

graciosus (Baird and Girard) . 34: 63-66. 

1922. Food habits of Crotaphytus wislizenii Baird and 

Girard. 356: 1-4. 

1923a. Food habits of Callisaurus ventral is ventralis 

(Hallowell) . 36: 79-82. 

1923b. Food habits of Crotaphytus collaris baileyi 

(Stejneger) . 36: 83-84. 
. 1923c. The food habits of Cnemidophorus tessellatus 

tessellatus (Say). 36: 85-90. 
Pernetta, John C. , see Brown, Walter C. and D. Watling, 1980. 
*Peters, James A. 1967. The generic allocation of the frog 

Ceratophrys stolzmanni Steindachner, with the description of 

a new subspecies from Ecuador. 80: 105-112. 
* . 1968. A replacement name for Bothrops lansbergii 

venezuelensis Roze, 1959 (Viperidae, Serpentes) . 81: 319- 

322. 

1970. A note on the generic names Cyclaqras Cope and 

Leiosophis Jan (Reptilia: Serpentes) . 82 (67) : 847-850. 
Peters, James A., see also Heyer, W. Ronald, 1971. 
Potter, Floyd E. , Jr., see Burger, W. Leslie and Hobart M. 

Smith, 1950. 
Pregill, Gregory. 1984. An extinct species of Leiocephalus from 

Haiti (Sauria: Iguanidae) . 97 (4): 827-833. 
Pyburn, William F. 1978. The voice and relationships of the 

treefrog Hyla hobbsi (Anura: Hylidae) . 91 (1): 123-131. 

1980. The function of eggless capsules and leaf in nests 

of the frog Phyllomedusa hypochondr ial is (Anura: Hylidae) 

93(1): 153-167. 
* . 1981. A new poison-dart frog (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from 

the forest of southeastern Colombia. 94 (1): 67-75. 
and J. P. Kennedy. 1961. Hybridization in U. S. 

treefrogs of the genus Hyla . 74: 157-160. 
* and John D. Lynch. 1981. Two little-known species of 



14 



Eleutherodactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) from the Sierra 
de la Macarena, Colombia. 94 (2): 404-412. 
Pyburn, William F. , see also Heyer, W. Ronald, 1983. 

Rabor, Discoro S., see Brown, Walter C. , 1967. 

Ramsden, C. T. , see Barbour, Thomas, 1916. 

Richmond, Neil D. 1963. Evidence against the existence of 

crocodiles in Virginia and Maryland during the Pleistocene. 

76: 65-68. 
* . 1965. A new species of blind snake, T yphlops . from 

Trinidad. 78: 121-124. 
Richmond, Neil D. , see also Netting, M. Graham and N. Bayard 

Green, 1946. 
Riley, J. H. 1914. On the remains of an apparently reptilian 

character in the Cotingidae. 27: 148-149. 
*Robinson, Douglas C. 1976. A new dwarf salamander of the genus 

Bolitoqlossa (Plethodontidae) from Costa Rica. 89 (22) : 289- 

294. 
Ross, Charles A. and Franklin D. Ross. 1974. Caudal scalation 

of Central American Crocodylus . 87 (21): 231-234. 
and . 1987. Identity of Crocodylus mexicanus 

Bocourt, 1869 (Reptilia: Crocodylidae) . 100 (4): 713-716. 
Ross, Franklin D. , see Ross, Charles A., 1974 and 1987. 
Ruiz-Carranza, Pedro M. , see Lynch, John D. , 1982. 
*Ruthven, Alexander G. 1912. Description of a new Anolis from 

Brazil. 25: 163-164. 

* . 1913. Description of a new Uta from Nevada. 26: 27-30. 

* . 1914a. Desceription of a new species of Basiliscus from 

the region of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. 

27: 9-12. 
* . 1914b. Description of a new engystomatid frog of the 

genus Hypopachus . 27: 77-80. 

*Savage, Jay M. 1955. Descriptions of new colubrid snakes, 
genus Atractus, from Ecuador. 68: 11-20. 

1980. The tadpole of the Costa Rican fringe-limbed 
treefrog, Hyla f imbrimembra . 93 (4): 1177-1183. 

1981. The systematic status of Central American frogs 
confused with Eleutherodactylus cruentus . 94 (2) : 413-420. 

1986. Nomenclatural notes on the Anura (Amphibia) . 

99(1): 42-45. 
* and Frank S. Cliff. 1954. A new snake, Phyllorhynchus 

arenicola . from the Gulf of California, Mexico. 67: 69-76. 
and James F. DeWeese. 1980. The status of the Central 

American leptodactylid frogs Eleutherodactylus melanost ictus 

(Cope) and Eleutherodactylus platyrhynchus (Gunther) . 93 

(4) :928-942. 
*Schmidt, Karl Patterson. 193 6. New amphibians and reptiles from 

Honduras in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 49: 43-50. 
*Schwartz, Albert. 1955. The diamondback terrapins ( Malaclemys 

terrapin ) of peninsular Florida. 68: 157-164. 
* . 1957. A new species of Eleutherodactylus (Amphibia: 

Leptodactylidae) from Cuba. 70: 209-212. 
* . 1958a. A new gecko of the Sphaerodactylus decoratus 

group from Cuba. 71: 27-36. 



15 



* . 1958b. Another new large Eleutherodactylus (Amphibia: 

Leptodactylidae) from western Cuba. 71: 37-42. 

* . 1959. A new species of toad, Bufo cataulacipes , from the 

Isla de Pinos and western Cuba. 72: 109-120. 

* . 1960a. The large toads of Cuba. 73: 45-56. 

* . 1960b. Variation in the Cuban lizard Leiocephalus 

raviceps Cope. 73: 67-82. 

* . 1960c. A new subspecies of Leiocephalus stictiqaster 

Schwartz from central Cuba. 73: 103-106. 

* . 1965a. Two new subspecies of the anguid lizard Wetmorena 

from Hispaniola. 78: 39-48. 

* . 1965b. A review of the colubrid snake genus Arrhyton 

with a description of a new subspecies from southern Oriente 
Province, Cuba. 78: 99-114. 

* . 1965c. A new species of Eleutherodactylus (Amphibia: 

Leptodactylidae) from the Sierra de Baoruco, Republica 
Dominicana. 78: 165-168. 

* . 1968. Geographic variation in the new world gekkonid 

lizard Tarentola americana Gray. 81: 123-142. 

* . 1970. A new species of large Diploqlossus (Sauria: 

Anguidae) from Hispaniola. 82 (60): 777-788. 

* • 1973. A third species of the Hispaniolan shrevei group 

of Sphaerodactylus (Sauria, Gekkonidae) . 86 (4): 35-40. 

* . 1977a. The geckos (Sauria, Gekkonidae) of the genus 

Sphaerodactylus of the Dominican Peninsula de Barahona, 
Hispaniola. 90 (2): 243-254. 

* • 1977b. A new species of Sphaerodactylus (Sauria, 

Gekkonidae) from Isla Monito, West Indies. 90 (4): 985-992. 

* • 1979. A new species of Leiocephalus (Reptilia: 

Iguanidae) from Hispaniola. 92 (2): 272-279. 

* and Ronald I. Crombie. 1975. A new species of the genus 

Aristelliger (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from the Caicos Islands. 
88(27) : 305-314. 

* and Richard Franz. 1976. A new species of Sphaerodactylus 

(Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Hispaniola. 88 (34): 367-372. 

* and Orlando H. Garrido. 1968. An undescribed subspecies 

of Leiocephalus raviceps Cope (Sauria: Iguanidae) from 
western Cuba. 81: 2 3-30. 

* and . 1974. A new Cuban species of Sphaerodactylus 

(Gekkonidae) of the niqropunctatus complex. 87 (30) : 337- 
344. 

* and . 1975. A reconsideration of some Cuban 

Tropidophis (Serpentes, Boidae) . 88 (9): 77-90. 

* / Eugene D. Graham, Jr. and Julian J. Duval. 1979. A new 

species of Diploglossus (Sauria: Anguidae) from Hispaniola. 
92 (1): 1-9. 

* and Julian R. Harrison, III. 1956. A new subspecies of 

gopher frog (Rana capito Leconte) . 69: 135-144. 
Schwartz, Albert, see also Garrido, Orlando H. , 1972 and 1982. 
*Shreve, Benjamin. 1940. A new Rhacophorus and a new Philautus 

from Ceylon. 53: 105-108. 
Simmons, John E. , see Duellman, William B. , 1977. 
Smith, Albert G. 1945. The status of Thamnophis butleri Cope, 
and a redescription of Thamnophis brachystoma (Cope). 58: 
147-154. 



16 



Smith, Hobart M. 1934. On the taxonomic status of three species 

of lizards of the genus Sceloporus from Mexico and southern 

United States. 47: 121-134. 
* . 1936. Description of new species of lizards of the genus 

Sceloporus from Mexico. 49: 87-96. 
* . 1937. A new subspecies of the lizard genus Sceloporus 

from Texas. 50: 83-86. 

* . 1939. Mexican herpetological novelties. 52: 187-196. 

* . 1940. Descriptions of new lizards and snakes from Mexico 

and Guatemala. 53: 55-64. 
* . 1941a. A new name for Mexican snakes of the genus 

Dendrophidion . 54: 73-76. 

* . 1941b. A new Leptodeira from Mexico. 54: 115-118. 

* . 1941c. On the Mexican snakes of the genus Pliocercus . 

54: 119-124. 

1941d. A new race of Lygosoma from Mexico. 54: 181-182. 
1942a. Additional notes on Mexican snakes of the genus 



* 

* 



Pliocercus . 55: 159-164. 
* . 1942b. Descriptions of new species and subspecies of 

Mexican snakes of the genus Rhadinaea . 55: 185-192. 
* and Bryce C. Brown. 1947. The Texas subspecies of the 

tree frog, Hyla versicolor . 60: 47-50. 
* and Leonard E. Laufe. 1945. A new South American 

Leptotyphlops . 58: 29-32. 
* and Robert H. . McCauley, Jr. 1948. Another new anole from 

south Florida. 61: 159-166. 
* and Philip W. Smith. 1951. A new snake (Tarvtilla) from 

the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico. 64: 97-100. 
Smith, Hobart M. , see also Brown, Bryce C. , 1942; Burger, W. 

Leslie and Floyd E. Potter, Jr., 1950 and Smith, Philip W. , 

1951 and 1961. 
Smith, Philip W. 1956. The status, correct name, and geographic 

range of the boreal chorus frog. 69: 169-176. 
and M. Max Hensley. 1957. The mud turtle, Kinosternon 

flavescens steinegeri Hartweg, in the United States. 70: 

201-204. 
* and Hobart M. Smith. 1951. A new lizard ( Sceloporus ) from 

Oaxaca, Mexico. 64: 101-104. 
and . 1963. The systematic status of the lined snake 

of Iowa. 76: 297-304. 
Smith, Philip W. , see also Smith, Hobart M. , 1951. 
*Stejneger, Leonhard. 1901. Diagnosis of eight new batrachians 

and reptiles from the Riu Kiu Archipelago, Japan. 14: 189- 

191. 
* . 1902a. A new opisthoglyph snake from Formosa. 15: 15- 

17. 

1902b. Gerrhonotus caeruleus versus Gerrhonotus 

burnettii . 15: 37. 
* . 1902c. Ptvchozoon kuhli a new name for P. 

homalocephalum . 15: 37. 

* . 1902d. Some generic names of turtles. 15: 235-238. 

1902e. A salamander new to the District of Columbia. 

15:239-240. 
* . 1903a. Description of a new species of gecko from Cocos 

Island. 16: 3-4. 



17 



* . 1903b. A new hognose snake from Florida. 16: 123-124. 

* . 1903c. A new species of large iguana from the Bahama 

Islands. 16: 129-132. 

* . 1904. A new lizard from the Rio Grande Valley, Texas. 

17: 17-20. 

1905. A snake new to the District of Columbia. 18: 73- 
74. 

* . 1909. Generic names of some chelyid turtles. 22: 125- 

128. 

1910. The amphibian generic name Enqystoma untenable. 
23: 165-168. 

* . 1913. A new lizard from Porto Rico. 26: 69-72. 

* . 1915. A new species of tailless batrachian from North 

America. 28: 131-132. 

* . 1916a. New generic name for a tree-toad from New Guinea. 

29: 85. 

1916b. Notes on amphisbaenian nomenclature. 29: 85. 

* . 1916c. A new lizard of the genus Sceloporus from Texas. 

29: 227-230. 

* . 1917a. A new species of horned tree-toad from Panama. 

30: 31-34. 

1917b. The salamander genus Ranodon in North America. 
30: 123-124. 

* . 1918a. Description of a new snapping turtle and a new 

lizard from Florida. 31: 89-92. 

1918b. Nomenclatorial notes on milk snakes. 31: 99. 
1919. The "glass-snake" of Formosa. 32: 142. 
1924. The woodfrogs of Japan. 37: 73-78. 

* . 1926. Two new tailless amphibians from western China. 

39: 53-54. 

* . 1929. A new snake from China. 42: 129-130. 

* • 1933. Description of a new box turtle from Mexico. 46: 

119-120. 

1938. Restitution of the name Ptychemys hoyi Agassiz for 
a western river tortoise. 51: 173-176. 
*Stickel, William H. 1943. The Mexican snakes of the genera 
Sonora and Chionactis with notes on the status of other 
colubrid genera. 56: 109-128. 
Strecker, John K. , Jr. 1908a. The reptiles and batrachians of 
Victoria and Refugio Counties, Texas. 21: 47-52. 

1908b. A preliminary annotated list of the Batrachia of 
Texas. 21: 53-62. 

1908c. The reptiles and batrachians of McLennan County, 
Texas. 21: 69-84. 

1908d. Notes on the habits of two Arkansas salamanders 
and a list of batrachians and reptiles collected at Hot 
Springs. 21: 85-90. 

• 1908e. Notes on the breeding habits of Phrynosoma 

cornutum and other Texas lizards. 21: 165-170. 

1908f. Notes on the life history of Scaphiopus couchii 
Baird. 21: 199-206. 

* . 1909. Notes on the narrow-mouthed toad ( Enqystoma ) and 

the description of a new species from southeastern Texas. 
22: 115-120. 
* . 1910. Description of a new solitary spadefoot 



18 



( Scaphiopus hurterii) from Texas, with other herpetological 

23: 115-122. 
Stuart, L. C. 1940. A new Hypopachus from Guatemala. 53; 

19-22. 
* . 1941a. A new species of Xenosaurus from Guatemala. 54: 

47-48. 
* . 1941b. Another new H ypopachus from Guatemala. 54: 125- 

128. 
* . 1941c. Two new species of Eleutherodactylus from 

Guatemala. 54: 197-200. 

194 Id. Errata (A new species of Xenosaurus from 

Guatemala). 54: 217. 
* . 1942a. Comments on the undulata group of Ameiva 

(Sauria) . 55: 143-150. 
* . 1942b. A new Tropidodipsas (Ophidia) from Alta Verapaz, 

Guatemala. 55: 177-180. 
* . 1948. Another new Plectrohyla from Guatemala. 61: 17- 

18. 
* . 1949. A new Trimetopon (Ophidia) from Guatemala. 62: 

165-168. 

* . 1952. Some new amphibians from Guatemala. 65: 1-12. 

* . 1954. Descriptions of some new amphibians and reptiles 

from Guatemala. 67: 159-178. 
Stuart, L. C. , see also Baylor, Edward R. , 1961. 

Taylor, Edward H. 1931. The discovery of a lizard Sceloporus 

torquatus cyanoqenys Cope in Texas, new to the fauna of the 

United States. 44: 129-132. 
* . 1933a. Two new Mexican skinks of the genus Eumeces. 46: 

129-138. 

* . 1933b. New species of skinks from Mexico. 46: 175-182. 

* . 1936a. Description of a new Sonoran snake of the genus 

Ficimia . with notes on other Mexican species. 49: 51-54. 

1936b. The rediscovery of the lizard Eumeces altamirani 

(Duges) with notes on two other Mexican species of the genus. 

49: 55-58. 
* . 1937. New species of hylid frogs from Mexico with 

comments on the rare Hyla bistincta Cope. 50: 43-54. 
* . 1940a. A new Syrrhophus from Guerrero, Mexico. 53: 95- 

98. 

1940b. Palatal sesamoid bones and palatal teeth in 

Cnemidophorus , with notes on these teeth in other saurian 

genera. 53: 119-124. 
* . 1941a. A new plethodontid salamander from New Mexico. 

54: 77-80. 
* . 1941b. Two new species of Mexican plethodontid 

salamanders. 54: 81-86. 

* . 1941c. Some Mexican frogs. 54: 87-94. 

* . 1943. A new Hylella from Mexico. 56: 49-52. 

* . 1948. New Costa Rican salamanders. 61: 177-180. 

* . 1951. Two new genera and a new family of tropical 

American frogs. 64: 33-40. 
and Irving W. Knobloch. 1940. Report on an herpetological 

collection from the Sierra Madre Mountains of Chihuahua. 53: 

125-130. 



19 



Taylor, William R. 1977. Observations on specimen fixation. 

90(4) : 753-763. 
*Thomas, Richard. 1965. The smaller teiid lizards 

( Gymnophthalmus and Bachia) of the southeastern Caribbean. 

78: 141-154. 
* . 1966. Leeward Islands T yphi op s (Reptilia, Serpentes) . 

79: 255-266. 
* . 1974. A new species of Typhi ops (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) 

from Hispaniola. 87 (2): 11-18. 
* . 1982. A new dwarf Sphaerodactylus from Haiti 

(Lacertilia: Gekkonidae) . 95 (1): 81-88. 
* , Roy W. McDiarmid and Fred G. Thompson. 1985. Three new 

species of thread snakes (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) from 

Hispaniola. 98 (1) : 204-220. 
Thompson, Fred G. , see Thomas, Richard and Roy W. McDiarmid, 

1985. 
♦Thompson, Helen B. 1913. Description of a new subspecies of 

Rana pretiosa from Nevada. 26: 53-56. 
Tuck, Robert G. , Jr. 1971. Rediscovery and redescription of the 

Khuzistan dwarf gecko, Microgecko helenae Nikolsky (Sauria: 

Gekkonidae). 83 (42): 477-482. 
and Jerry David Hardy, Jr. 1973. Status of the Ober 

Tobago Collection, Smithsonian Institution, and the proper 

allocation of Ameiva suranamensis tobaganus Cope (Sauria: 

Teiidae) . 86(19): 231-242. 
Turner, Richard L. 1985. Microphiopholis . replacement name for 

Micropholis Thomas, 1966 (Ophiuroides: Amphiuridae) , non 

Huxley, 1859 (Amphibia: Dissorophidae) . 98 (4): 1028-1029. 
Tyler, Michael J., see Brown, Walter C. , 1968. 

Valentine, Barry D. 1963. The plethodontid salamander 

Phaeognathus : External morphology and zoogeographyy. 76: 

153-158. 
Velosa, Alberto, see Formas, J. R. , 1982. 
Vera, M. Ines, see Formas, J. R. , 1982. 
Viosca, Percy, Jr. A new species of Hyla from Louisiana. 41:89- 

92. 
* . 1938. A new waterdog from central Louisiana. 51: 143- 

145. 

Wake, David B. , see Brame, Arden H. , Jr., 1962 and 1963. 
Watling, D. , see Brown, Walter C. and John C. Pernetta, 1980. 
*Weed, Alfred C. 1922. New frogs from Minnesota. 35: 107-110. 
Wilson, Larry David, see McCranie, James R. , 1986. 
Witt, William L. 1945. Distributional notes on some Virginia 

reptiles. 76: 305-306. 
*Woodbury, Angus M. 1945. A new Gerrhonotus lizard from Utah. 

58: 5-10. 
* and Dixon Woodbury. 1942. Studies on the rat snake, 

Elaphe laeta, with description of a new subspecies. 55: 133- 

142. 
Woodbury, Dixon, see Woodbury, Angus M. , 1942. 
Woodin, William H. , III, see Lowe, Charles H. , Jr., 1954. 
Wright, A. A., see Wright, A. H. , 1927. 
Wright, A. H. 1918. Notes on Clemmys . 31: 51-58. 



20 



* . 1924. A new bullfrog ( Rana heckscheri ) from Georgia and 

Florida. 37: 141-152. 
and A. A. Wright. 1927. Notes on Sceloporus merriami 

Stejneger. 40: 57-64. 
Wright, Margaret R. , see Bishop, S.G., 1937. 

*Zug, George R. 1959. Three new subspecies of the lizard 

Leiocephalus macropus Cope from Cuba. 72: 139-150. 
* . 1985. A new skink (Reptilia: Sauria: Leiolopisma ) from 

Fiji. 98 (1): 221-231. 
Zug, George R. , see also Orejas-Miranda, Braulio R. , 1974; 

Orejas-Miranda, Braulio, Daniel Y. E. Garcia . and Federico 

Achaval, 1977. 



21 



SCIENTIFIC NAME INDEX 



Abastor erythrogramus 22: 

129; 58: 131. 
Ablabes 23:169. 
Ablephararus boutoni keiensis 

24:15. 
Abronia deppi 74:37. 
Acris crepitans 74: 157. 
Acris gryllus 15: 121; 22: 

129; 23: 9; 33: 129; 44: 11; 

50: 137. 
Acris gryllus blanchardi 60: 

39. 
Acris gryllus crepitans 20: 

1: 21: 47; 21: 53; 21: 69; 

60: 39. 
Acris gryllus gryllus 20: 1; 

60: 39. 
Adelphicos quadrivirgatus 

sargii 62:165. 
Adenomera 87: 81. 
Adenomera andreae 87: 327; 

88: 315; 89: 581. 
Adenomera bokermanni 88: 315; 

89: 581. 
Adenomera hylaedactyla 87: 

327; 88: 315; 89: 581. 
Adenomera lutzi 88: 315; 89: 

581. 
Adenomera marmorata 87: 327; 

88: 315; 89: 581. 
Adenomera martinezi 88: 318; 

89: 581. 
Agalychnis 67: 159. 
Agalychnis calcarifer 93: 

1177. 
Agalychnis callidryas 93: 

153. 
Agalychnis dacnicolor 93: 

153. 
Agalychnis litodryas 93: 

1177. 
Agalychnis moreletii 37: 65; 

93: 153. 
Agalychnis spurrelli 37: 65. 
Agama colonorum 26: 145. 
Agama doriae 26: 14 5. 
Agama hartmanni 26: 14 5. 
Agama kirkii fitzsimonsi 63: 

127. 
Agama nupta. 83: 4 77. 
Agama occipitalis 63: 127. 
Agama spinosa 26: 145. 
Agkistrodon acutus 91: 963. 



Agkistrodon bilineatus 91: 

963. 
Agkistrodon bilineatus 

bilineatus 84: 327; 92: 

135. 
Agkistrodon bilineatus 

howardgloydi 97: 13 5. 
Agkistrodon bilineatus 

russeolus 84: 327; 97: 135. 
Agkistrodon bilineatus taylori 

84: 327; 97: 135. 
Agkistrodon blomhoffii 85: 

557; 91: 963. 
Agkistrodon blomhoffii 

brevicaudatus 90: 1002. 
Agkistrodon blomhoffii 

brevicaudus 85: 557; 90: 

1002. 
Agkistrodon blomhoffii 

dubitatus 90: 1002. 
Agkistrodon blomhoffii 

intermedius 85: 557. 
Agkistrodon blomhoffii 

siniticus 90: 1002. 
Agkistrodon brevicaudus 85: 

557. 
Agkistrodon caliginosus 85: 

557; 91: 963. 
Agkistrodon contortrix 15: 

121; 91: 960. 
Agkistrodon contortrix 

contortrix 82: 219. 
Agkistrodon contortrix 

laticinctus 82: 219. 
Agkistrodon contortrix mokeson 

82: 219. 
Agkistrodon contortrix 

phaeogaster 82: 219. 
Agkistrodon contortrix 

pictigaster 82: 219. 
Agkistrodon halys 91: 963. 
Agkistrodon halys brevicaudus 

85: 557; 90: 1002. 
Agkistrodon halys caroganus 

90: 1002. 
Agkistrodon halys cognatus 90: 

1002. 
Agkistrodon halys halys 90: 

1002. 
Agkistrodon halys intermedius 

90: 1002. 
Agkistrodon himalayanus 91: 

963. 



22 



Agkistrodon intermedius 85: 

557; 91: 963. 
Agkistrodon mokasen 33: 12 9; 

50: 137. 
Agkistrodon mokeson mokeson 

59: 165; 82: 219. 
Agkistrodon monticola 91: 

963. 
Agkistrodon nepa 90: 1002. 
Agkistrodon piscivorus 91: 

963. 
Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti 

82: 219. 
Agkistrodon piscivorus 

leucostoma 82: 219. 
Agkistrodon piscivorus 

piscivorus 82: 219. 
Agkistrodon rhodostoma 91: 

963. 
Agkistrodon saxatilis 85: 

557. 
Agkistrodon stejnegeri 85: 

557. 
Agkistrodon strauchi 91: 963. 
Agkistrodon ussuriensis 85: 

557. 
Alligator lacordairei 87: 

231. 
Alligator mississippiensis 

21: 47; 22: 129; 23: 9; 23: 

115; 76: 65. 
Allophryne ruthveni 99: 42. 
Alopoglossus buckleyi 99: 

214. 
Alsodes 95: 594; 98: 774. 
Alsodes gargola 93: 920. 
Alsodes illotus 93: 920. 
Alsodes laevis 93: 920. 
Alsodes montanus 93: 920. 
Alsodes monticola 93: 920. 
Alsodes nodosus 93: 920. 
Alsodes vanzolinii 93: 920. 
Alsophis 35: 219. 
Alsophis anegadae 30: 97. 
Alsophis angulifer 70: 209. 
Alsophis anomalus 45: 189. 
Alsophis antillensis 30: 97. 
Alsophis bruesi 28: 71. 
Alsophis leucomelas 28: 71. 
Alsophis leucomelas danforthi 

51: 147. 
Alsophis leucomelas manselli 

51: 147. 
Alsophis leucomelas sanctorum 

51: 147. 



Alsophis melanichnus 41: 127. 
Alsophis portoricensis 

variegatus 90: 985. 
Alsophis pulcher 28: 71. 
Alsophis rufiventris 51:147. 
Alsophis rudii 29: 215. 
Alsophis sanctonum 28: 71. 
Alsophylax persicus 83: 477. 
Altirana 55: 49. 
Amblycephalus vertebralis 51: 

43. 
Amblymetopon variegatum 49: 

51. 
Amblystoma talpoideum 23: 9. 
Amby stoma annulatum 21: 85. 
Ambystoma argus 15: 2 39. 
Ambystoma carolinae 15: 239. 
Ambystoma copeiannum 20: 1. 
Ambystoma gracile 43: 55; 47: 

167. 
Ambystoma jef fersonianum 20: 

1; 25: 135; 31: 51; 50: 137; 

69: 93; 76: 159. 
Ambystoma jef fersonianum 

fuscum 15: 121; 31: 1; 

Bl: 1. 
Ambystoma macrodactylum 43: 

55. 
Ambystoma maculatum 15: 239; 

33: 129; 50: 137; 59: 165; 

Bl: 1. 
Ambystoma microstomum 20: 1: 

21: 47; 21: 53; 21: 69; 22: 

115. 
Ambystoma opacum 15: 121; 15: 

239; 20: 1; 21: 53; 21: 69; 

21: 85; 33: 129; 50: 137. 
Ambystoma prosperina 21: 53. 
Ambystoma punctatum 15: 2 39; 

20: 1; 21: 53; 25: 135; Bl : 

1. 
Ambystoma talpoideum 25: 135. 
Ambystoma texanum 58: 39. 
Ambystoma texanus 21: 53; 21: 

69. 
Ambystoma tigrinum 15: 121; 

20: 1. 
Ambystoma tigrinum 

californiense 21:53; 43: 

55; 67: 243. 
Ambystoma tigrinum diaboli 

76: 159. 
Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium 

67: 243. 



23 



Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum 

67: 243. 
Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi 

67: 243. 
Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum 

67: 243. 
Ambystoma tigrinum velasci 

67: 243. 
Ambystoma vehiculum 47: 169. 
Ameiva 28: 71; 42: 153; 92: 

272. 
Ameiva abbotti 44: 89. 
Ameiva aquilina 51: 147; 86: 

231. 
Ameiva ameiva aquilina 86: 

231. 
Ameiva ameiva atrigularis 86: 

231. 
Ameiva ameiva tobagana 86: 

231. 
Ameiva amivoides 55: 143. 
Ameiva atrigularis 86: 231. 
Ameiva auberi 81: 23. 
Ameiva barbouri 41: 53. 
Ameiva beatensis 44: 89. 
Ameiva chaitzami 55: 143. 
Ameiva chrysolaema 41: 53. 
Ameiva dorsalis 29: 215. 
Ameiva exsul 30: 97; 51: 147. 
Ameiva exsul alboguttata 90: 

985. 
Ameiva f estiva miadis 55: 

143. 
Ameiva griswoldi 29: 215; 30: 

163. 
Ameiva leberi 88: 367. 
Ameiva leptophrys 55: 143. 
Ameiva lincolota 26: 69; 41: 

53. 
Ameiva pluvianotata 51: 147. 
Ameiva polops 26: 69; 30: 97. 
Ameiva pulchra 55: 14 3. 
Ameiva sackii 44: 73. 
Ameiva surinamensis tobaganus 

86: 231. 
Ameiva taeniura 41: 53; 82: 

777. 
Ameiva thoracica 29: 215. 
Ameiva tobagana 29: 221; 86: 

231. 
Ameiva tobaganus 29: 221. 
Ameiva undulata 53: 119. 
Ameiva undulata dextra 74: 

37. 



Ameiva undulata hartwegi 53: 

55; 55: 143. 
Ameiva undulata parva 53: 55; 

55: 143. 
Ameiva undulata pulchra 55: 

143. 
Ameiva undulata stuarti 53: 

55; 55: 143. 
Ameiva undulata undulata 53: 

55; 55: 143. 
Ameiva wetmorei 26: 69; 30: 

97. 
Amiva suranamensis tobaganus 

86: 231. 
Amolops 39: 53. 
Amphibolurus muricatus 27: 

201. 
Amphisbaena 59: 73. 
Amphisbaena caudalis 41: 53. 
Amphisbaena innocens 41: 53. 
Amphisbaena punctata 29: 85. 
Amphiuma means 22: 129; 23: 9. 
Amphiuma tridactyla 22: 129; 

23: 9. 
Amyda 28: 71. 
Anadia 90: 60. 
Anadia angusticeps 42: 99. 
Anadia bitaeniata 42: 99; 50: 

11. 
Anadia bogotensis 42: 99. 
Anadia metallica 42: 99. 
Anadia nicefori 42: 99. 
Anadia ocellata 42: 99. 
Anadia pulchella 42: 99. 
Anadia pulchra 50: 11. 
Anadia rhombifera 42: 99. 
Anadia steyeri 42: 99. 
Anadia vittata 42: 99. 
Ancistrodon bilineatus 84: 

327. 
Ancistrodon blomhoffi 

brevicaudus 85: 557. 
Ancistrodon blomhoffii 90: 

1002. 
Ancistrodon contortrix 20: 1; 

21: 48; 21: 69; 21: 85; 22: 

115; 22: 129; 23: 9. 
Ancistrodon halys brevicaudus 

85: 557. 
Ancistrodon halys intermedius 

85: 557. 
Ancistrodon halys stejnegeri 

85: 557. 
Ancistrodon hypnale 90: 1002. 



24 



Ancistrodon intermedius 84: 

557. 
Ancistrodon millardi 90: 

1002. 
Ancistrodon nepa 90: 1002. 
Ancistrodon piscivorus 21: 

47; 21: 69; 21: 85; 22: 129; 

23: 9. 
Ancistrodon saxatilis 85: 

557. 
Ancylocranium barkeri 59: 73. 
Ancylocranium somalica 59: 

73. 
Ancylocranium somalicum 59: 

73. 
Andrias 86: 105. 
Aneides aeneus 61: 127. 
Aneides ferreus 43: 55; 61: 

127. 
Aneides f lavipunctatus 43: 

55; 62: 57. 
Aneides f lavipunctatus 

f lavipunctatus 61: 127. 
Aneides flavipunctatus niger 

61: 127. 
Aneides lugubris 61: 127. 
Aneides lugubris lugubris 43: 

55. 
Anilios leachii 79: 255. 
Anolis albipalpebralis 29: 

215. 
Anolis alligator 29: 121; 86: 

231. 
Anolis alutaceus 85: 509. 
Anolis antiquae 28: 71: 29: 

215. 
Anolis argillaceus 85: 509. 
Anolis asper 51: 147. 
Anolis bartschi 81: 123. 
Anolis bimaculatus 28: 71. 
Anolis bimaculatus leachi 79: 

255. 
Anolis brunneus 23: 99. 
Anolis carolinensis 21: 47; 

21: 69; 21: 85; 22: 115; 22: 

129; 23: 99; 33: 129; 61: 

159. 
Anolis cepedii 28: 71. 
Anolis chlorocyaneus 82: 777. 
Anolis chrysolaema 82: 777. 
Anolis cobanensis 55: 159. 
Anolis coelestinus 41: 53. 
Anolis cooperi 61: 159. 
Anolis copei 49: 43. 



Anolis cristatellus 28: 71; 

29: 215; 30: 97; 90: 985. 
Anolis cristatellus 

cristatellus 51: 147. 
Anolis cumingii 56: 109. 
Anolis cyanopleurus 85: 509. 
Anolis cybotes 38: 101; 41: 

53; 82: 777. 
Anolis distichus 41: 53; 45: 

183. 
Anolis distichus altavelensis 

61: 159. 
Anolis distichus caudalis 61: 

159. 
Anolis distichus distichoides 

61: 159. 
Anolis distichus distichus 

61: 159. 
Anolis distichus dominicensis 

61: 159. 
Anolis distichus floridanus 

61: 159. 
Anolis distichus juliae 61: 

159. 
Anolis distichus wetmorei 61: 

159. 
Anolis dominicensis caudalis 

45: 183. 
Anolis dominicensis wetmorei 

44: 89. 
Anolis doris 38: 101; 41: 53. 
Anolis dunni 74: 37. 
Anolis ferreus 28: 71: 30: 

97. 
Anolis gadovi 74: 37. 
Anolis hendersoni 

bahorucoensis 78: 39 
Anolis hendersoni hendersoni 

78: 39. 
Anolis krugi 30: 97. 
Anolis krugi gingivinus 51: 

147. 
Anolis krugi wattsi 51: 147. 
Anolis leachii 28: 71. 
Anolis leachii lividus 51: 

147. 
Anolis lindeni 25: 163. 
Anolis liogaster 74: 37. 
Anolis longitibialis 44: 89; 

88: 367. 
Anolis loveridgei 49: 43. 
Anolis lucius 81: 123. 
Anolis marmoratus 28: 71. 
Anolis megapholidotus 74: 37. 
Anolis mestrei 29: 19. 



25 



Anolis microlepidotus 74: 37. 
Anolis monensis 29: 215; 90: 

985. 
Anolis nebuloides 53: 119; 

74: 37. 
Anolis nebulosus 53: 119; 74: 

37. 
Anolis olsoni 41: 53. 
Anolis omiltemanus 74: 37. 
Anolis ordinatus 29: 215. 
Anolis petersii 49: 43. 
Anolis porcatus 23: 99. 
Anolis principalis 23: 9. 
Anolis principalis brunneus 

23: 99. 
Anolis pulchellus 30: 97. 
Anolis richardii 30: 97; 51: 

147. 
Anolis ricordi 82: 777. 
Anolis roquet 30: 97. 
Anolis roquet gentilis 51: 

147. 
Anolis roquet roquet 86: 231. 
Anolis roquet vincentii 51: 

147. 
Anolis sabanus 51: 147. 
Anolis sagrei 61: 159. 
Anolis semilineatus 41: 53. 
Anolis spectrum spectrum 85: 

509. 
Anolis spectrum sumiderensis 

85: 509. 
Anolis stejnegeri 61: 159. 
Anolis stratulus 30: 97. 
Anolis subocularis 74: 37. 
Anolis terrae-altae 28: 71. 
Anolis townsendi 16: 3. 
Anolis trossulus 29: 221. 
Anolis vanidicus rejectus 85: 

509. 
Anolis vandicus vanidicus 85: 

509. 
Anomalepis 45: 173. 
Anomalepis mexicana 36: 185. 
Anops kingii 29: 85. 
Anopsibaena 29: 85. 
Anotheca 52: 187. 
Anotheca coronata 52: 187. 
Aparasphenodon 55: 151. 
Aporophis melanocephalus 35: 

219. 
Aristelligella barbouri 46: 

33. 
Aristelliger barbouri 88: 

305. 



Aristelliger cochranae 46: 

33; 88: 305. 
Aristelliger expectatus 46: 

33. 
Aristelliger georgeensis 88: 

305. 
Aristelliger hechti 88: 305. 
Aristelliger irregularis 46: 

33. 
Aristelliger lar 41: 53; 46: 

33; 86: 35; 88: 305. 
Aristelliger praesignis 46: 

33; 88: 305. 
Aristelliger titan 88: 305. 
Arizona elegans phillipi 67: 

69. 
Aromochelys carinatus 23: 9. 
Aromochelys odorata 20: 1. 
Aromochelys odoratum 15: 235; 

23: 9. 
Aromochelys odoratus 15: 121; 

22: 129. 
Aromochelys tristycha 21: 47; 

21: 69; 23: 9. 
Arrhyton bivittatum 78: 99. 
Arrhyton dolichurum 78: 99. 
Arrhyton fulvum 78: 99. 
Arrhyton taeniatum 78: 99. 
Arrhyton vittatum landoi 78: 

99. 
Arrhyton vittatum vittatum 

78: 99. 
Arthroleptides 55: 49. 
Arthroleptis adolf i-friderici 

45: 61. 
Arthroleptis lonnbergi 45: 

61. 
Arthroleptis methneri 45: 61. 
Arthroleptis stenodactylus 

uluguruensis 45: 61. 
Arthroleptis stenodactylus 

variabilis 45: 61. 
Aryncus venustus 95: 688. 
Ascaphus 40: 123. 
Ascaphus truei 30: 123. 
Ascaphus truei californicus 

62: 57. 
Ascaphus truei montanus 62: 

57. 
Ascaphus truei truei 62 : 57 . 
Aspidonectes emoryi 21: 47; 

21: 69; 23: 115. 
Aspidonectes ferox 23: 115. 
Aspidonectes spinifer 23: 

115. 



26 



Aspidoscelis 42: 153. 
Astylosternus 55: 49. 
Atelopus 93: 1177. 
Atelopus ebenoides 90: 60.6 
Atelopus varius 37: 65. 
Atomarchus multimaculatus 53: 

125. 
Atopophrynus 95: 557; 99: 

214. 
Atopophrynus syntomopus 95: 

557. 
Atractaspis alterima 26: 145. 
Atractaspis irregularis 26: 

145. 
Atractaspis leucomelas 25: 

145. 
Atractaspis phillipsi 26: 

145. 
Atractus badius 59: 17; 68: 

11. 
Atractus bocourti 68: 11. 
Atractus collaris 68: 11. 
Atractus duboisi 68: 11. 
Atractus dunni 68: 11. 
Atractus ecuadorensis 68: 11. 
Atractus gaigeae 68: 11. 
Atractus maculata 68: 11. 
Atractus occidentalis 68: 11. 
Atractus occipitoalbus 68: 

11. 
Atractus orcesi 68: 11. 
Atractus trilineatus 29: 221; 

68: 11. 
Austrralocrinia riparia 95: 

423. 
Australocrinia tasmaniensis 

95: 423. 

Babina 37: 65. 

Bachia alleni alleni 78: 141. 

Bachia alleni parviceps 78: 

141. 
Bachia alleni trinitatis 78: 

141. 
Bachia cuvieri 78: 141. 
Bachia pallidicepa 78: 141. 
Bachia trinitatus 78: 141. 
Baikia africana 29: 85; 59: 

73. 
Barisia gadovi gadovi 74: 37. 
Barycholos 84: 163. 
Barycholos pulcher 87: 381. 
Basanitia 92: 377. 
Basanitia gehrti 98: 657. 
Basanitia lactea 98: 657. 



Basanitia nigriventris 98: 

657. 
Bascanion constrictor 15: 

121; 23: 9. 
Bascanion flagellum 23: 9. 
Bascanium constrictor 22: 

129. 
Basiliscus americanus 27: 9. 
Basiliscus barbouri 27: 9. 
Basiliscus goodridgii 27: 9. 
Basiliscus vittatus 53: 119; 

74: 37. 
Batrachemys 22: 125. 
Batrachemys nasuta 22: 125. 
Batrachoseps attenuatus 

attenuatus 43: 55. 
Batrachoseps attenuatus 

leucopus 43; 55. 
Batrachyla 98: 774. 
Batrachyla leptopus 95: 594. 
Batrachyla taeniata 95: 594. 
Bipes canaliculatus 74: 37. 
Boa hortulana cookii 51: 147 
Bogertia 54: 195. 
Bogertia lutzae 54: 195. 
Boiga kraepelini 15: 15. 
Bolieria 64: 91. 
Bolitoglossa 75: 71: 90: 60. 
Bolitoglossa alvaradoi 76: 

289. 
Bolitoglossa arborescandens 

76: 289. 
Bolitoghlossa bellii 54: 77; 

54: 81. 
Bolitoglossa borburata 76: 

289. 
Bolitoglossa cephalica 54: 

81. 
Bolitoglossa chica 89 
Bolitoglossa colonnea 

289; 89: 289. 
Bolitoglossa cuchumatana 

289. 
Bolitoglossa diminuta 89: 

289. 
Bolitoglossa epimela 89: 289 
Bolitoglossa flaviventris 76: 

289. 
Bolitoglossa gadovii 54: 81. 
Bolitoglossa galaenae 54: 81, 
Bolitoglossa lignicolor 76: 

289. 
Bolitoglossa manni 54: 81. 
Bolitoglossa melanomolga 54: 

81. 



289. 
76: 



89: 



27 



Bolitoglossa mexicana 76: 

289. 
Bolitoglossa palustris 76: 

289. 
Bolitoglossa peruviana 89: 

289. 
Bolitoglossa platydactyla 76: 

289. 
Bolitoglossa riletti 89: 289. 
Bolitoglossa rostrata 89: 

289. 
Bolitoglossa rufescens 76: 

289; 89: 289. 
Bolitoglossa salvinii 76; 

289. 
Bolitoglossa smithi 54: 81. 
Bolitoglossa striatula 76: 

289. 
Bolitoglossa unguidatis 54: 

81. 
Bolitoglossa yucatana 76: 

289. 
Borborocoetes calcaratus 95: 

594. 
Borborocoetes insularis 95: 

594. 
Borborocoetes mexicanus 54 : 

87. 
Borborocoetes miliaris 37: 

65. 
Borborocoetes quixensis 37: 

65. 
Borborocoetes stejnegeri 37: 

65. 
Bothriechis nigroviridis 32: 

213. 
Bothriopsis castelnaudi 32: 

213. 
Bothriopsis quadriscutatus 

32: 213. 
Bothrops atrox 36: 185. 
Bothrops atrox atrox 81: 315. 
Bothrops barbouri 72: 79. 
Bothrops chloromelas 59: 17. 
Bothrops lanceolatus 86: 231. 
Bothrops lansbergii rozei 81: 

315. 
Bothrops lansbergii 

venezuelensis 81: 319. 
Bothrops neglecta 50: 11. 
Bothrops Neuvoiedii 

Venezuelenzi 81: 319. 
Bothrops oligolepis 59: 17. 
Bothrops pifanoi 81: 319. 
Bothrops undulatus 72: 79. 



Bothrops venezuelae 81: 319. 
Bothrops venezuelensis 81: 

319. 
Briba 54: 195. 
Breviceps 23: 165. 
Buergeria ijimae 14: 189. 
Buergeria ishikawae 14: 189. 
Bufo 30: 97; 37: 141; 93: 

1177. 
Bufo aduncus 21: 53. 
Bufo americanus 21: 69; 21: 

199; 22: 129; 33: 129; 44: 

11; 69: 93; 76: 159. 
Bufo americanus americanus 

50: 137; 76: 159. 
Bufo bankorensis 51: 159. 
Bufo biporcatus 24: 15. 
Bufo boreas 62: 57. 
Bufo boreas boreas 43: 55. 
Bufo bufo miyakonis 51: 159. 
Bufo californicus 43: 73; 44: 

11. 
Bufo canagicus canagicus 43: 

55. 
Bufo canagicus halophilus 43: 

55; 43: 73. 
Bufo canorus 43: 55. 
Bufo cataulaciceps 72: 109; 

73: 45. 
Bufo cavator 24: 15. 
Bufo coccifer 67: 159; 74: 

195. 
Bufo cognatus 21: 53; 44: 11; 

76: 159. 
Bufo cognatus californicus 

43: 73. 
Bufo compactilis 21: 47; 21: 

53; 21: 69; 21: 199; 74: 

157. 
Bufo copei 69: 93. 
Bufo debilis 21: 47; 21: 69; 

21:199; 22: 115. 
Bufo empusus 72: 109; 73: 45. 
Bufo fowleri 33: 129; 50: 

137. 
Bufo funereus 74: 195. 
Bufo granulosus 37: 65. 
Bufo gundlachi 72: 109; 73: 

45. 
Bufo guntheri 72: 109. 
Bufo hemiophrys 76: 159. 
Bufo ibarrai 67: 159; 74: 195. 
Bufo lemur 30: 97; 72: 109. 
Bufo lentiginosus 22: 129; 

23: 9. 



28 



Bufo lentiginosus americanus 
15: 121; 20: 1; 21: 47; 21: 

53; 21: 69; 21: 85; 76: 159. 
Bufo lentiginosus woodhousei 

21: 53; 21: 69; 76: 159. 
Bufo leptopus 51: 191. 
Bufo longinasus 73: 45. 
Bufo longinasus dunni 72: 

109. 
Bufo longinasus longinasus 

72: 109. 
Bufo longinasus ramsdeni 72: 

109. 
Bufo marinus 28: 71; 29: 221; 

30: 97; 44: 11; 80: 105. 
Bufo melanostictus 51: 159. 
Bufo microtus 67: 159. 
Bufo monksiae 53: 125. 
Bufo peltacephalus 72: 109. 
Bufo peltacephalus fustiger 

73: 45. 
Bufo peltacephalus 

peltacephalus 73: 45. 
Bufo punctatus 21: 53; 21: 

69; 21: 199; 23: 115. 
Bufo guercicus 22: 129; 23: 

9; 72: 109. 
Bufo regularis 26: 145. 74: 

195. 
Bufo rubropunctatus 93: 920. 
Bufo simus 53: 125. 
Bufo spinulosus 98: 774. 
Bufo taladai 73: 45. 
Bufo terrestris americanus 

69: 93. 
Bufo terrestris copei 69: 93. 
Bufo turpis 30: 97. 
Bufo valliceps 21: 47; 21: 

53; 21: 199; 22: 115; 37: 

65; 67: 159; 74: 195. 
Bufo valliceps macrocristatus 

74: 195. 
Bufo valliceps valliceps 74: 

195. 
Bufo valliceps wilsoni 74: 

195. 
Bufo venustus 95: 688. 
Bufo viridis arabicus 83: 

477. 
Bufo woodhousei 44: 11; 76: 

159. 
Bufo woodhousei fowleri 59: 

165. 
Bufo woodhousei hemiophrys 

76: 159. 



Bungarus flaviceps baluensis 

51: 43. 
Bungarus flaviceps flaviceps 

51: 43. 
Bungarus flaviceps formosus 

51: 43. 

Cacopoides borealis 22: 89. 
Cacotus calceratus 95: 594. 
Cadea blanoides 29: 85; 70: 

209; 71: 37. 
Caecilia pachynema 59: 117. 
Calamaria 49: 51. 
Calamaria brachyura 40: 127. 
Calamaria egregia 40: 127. 
Calamaria electa 40: 127. 
Calamaria gracillima 36: 91. 
Calamaria leucocephala 51: 

43. 
Calamaria lovii 36: 91. 
Calamaria lumbricoidea 

griswoldi 51: 43. 
Calamaria lumholtzii 36: 91. 
Calamaria pfefferi 14: 189. 
Calamaria raveni 36: 91. 
Calamaria sumatrana 40: 12 7. 
Calamaria ventralis 36: 91. 
Calamita cinereus evittata 

50: 9. 
Callisaurus ventralis 

ventralis 36: 79. 
Callopeltis guttatus guttatus 

15: 121. 
Callopeltis obsoletus Bl: 1. 
Callopeltis obsoletus 

obsoletus 15: 121. 
Callopettis guttatus Bl: 1. 
Callophis hughi 40: 179. 
Callophis maculiceps 

maculiceps 40: 17 9. 
Callophis maculiceps 

univirgatus 40: 179. 
Callopistes 42: 153. 
Calloselasma acutis 91: 963. 
Calloselasma rhodostoma 91: 

963. 
Callula verrucosa 22: 89. 
Calyptahyla crucialis 90: 

194. 
Camariolus 95: 423. 
Candoia bibroni 98: 221. 
Cardioglossa 51: 191. 
Carphophiops amoenus 22: 129. 
Carphophis amoena 33: 129. 



29 



Carphophis amoena amoena 50: 

137. 
Carphophis amoenus 15: 121. 
Carphopiops amoenus 20: 1. 
Carpodacus vittatus 78: 99. 
Casarea 64: 91. 
Celestus 40: 91. 
Celestus costatus 41: 53; 92:1, 
Celestus curtissi 92: 1. 
Celestus stenurus 92: 1. 
Cemophora coccinea 18: 73; 

23: 9; 31: 99; 50: 89; Bl:l. 
Centrolene geckoideum 37: 65; 

64: 34. 
Centrolene prosoblepon 37: 

65; 64: 33. 
Centrolenella 93: 1177. 
Centrolenella albolunica 93: 

714. 
Centrolenella antioquensis 

64: 33; 93: 714. 
Centrolenella bejaranoi 93: 

714. 
Centrolenella bergeri 93: 

714. 
Centrolenella buckleyi 93: 

714. 
Centrolenella eurygnatha 93: 

714. 
Centrolenella f leischmanni 

37: 65; 93: 714. 
Centrolenella granulosa 64: 

33. 
Centrolenella johnelsi 93: 

714. 
Centrolenella munozorum 93: 

714. 
Centrolenella ocellata 93: 

714. 
Centrolenella pellucida 93: 

714. 
Centrolenella prosoblepon 93: 

714. 
Centrolenella pulverata 93: 

714. 
Centrolenella resplendens 93: 

714. 
Centrolenella siren 93: 714. 
Centrolenella spiculata 93: 

714. 
Centrolenella spinosa 64: 33. 
Centrolenella truebae 93: 

714. 
Centrolenella vanzolinii 93: 

714. 



Cerathyla bubalus 30: 31. 
Cerathyla panamensis 30: 31. 
Ceratophrys stolzmanni 

scaphiopeza 80: 105; 84:163. 
Ceratophrys stolzmanni 

stolzmanni 80: 105. 
Cercosaurus rhombifer 42: 99. 
Chaibassie tricarineta 15: 

235. 
Chalcides ocellatus 26: 145. 
Chaleidolepis metallicus 42: 99. 
Chamaeleo angusticoronatus 

16: 61. 
Chamaeleo basiliscus 26: 145. 
Chamaeleo macrorhinus 16: 61. 
Chamaeleo tenuis excubitor 24: 

219. 
Chamaeleo tenuis tenuis 24: 219 
Chamaelinorops 45: 191. 
Chamaelinorops barbouri 41: 45. 
Chamaelinorops wetmorei 41: 45. 
Chamaello dilepis 16: 61. 
Champsa acuta 100: 713. 
Chaperina fusca 51: 191. 
Chaporina visaya 80: 65. 
Chelodina expansa 22: 125. 
Chelodina longicollis 22: 

125; 99: 472. 
Chelodina novae-guineae 22: 

125. 
Chelodina oblonga 22: 125. 
Chelodina siebenrocki 22: 

125; 99: 477. 
Chelonia depressa 27: 201. 
Chelonia japonica 27: 201. 
Chelonia mydas 27: 201; B8 : 

116. 
Chelopus guttatus 22: 129; 

23: 9. 
Chelopus insculptus 20: 65. 
Chelys fimbriatus 99: 477. 
Chelydra osceola 31: 89. 
Chelydra serpentina 15: 121; 

20: 1; 21: 47; 21: 69; 21: 

85; 22: 129; 23: 9; 31: 89; 

33: 129; 44: 11; 50: 137. 
Chelydra serpentina serpentina 

76: 159. 
Chersydrus granulatus 

granulatus 51: 209. 
Chersydrus granulatus 

luzonensis 51: 209. 
Chilomeniscus 56: 109; 67: 

69. 



30 



Chionactis michoacanensis 56: 

109. 
Chionactis occipitalis 

annulatus 56: 109. 
Chionactis occipitalis 

klauberi 56: 109. 
Chionactis occipitalis 

occipitalis 56: 109. 
Chionactis occipitalis 

palarostris 56: 109. 
Chirixalus doriae 40: 179. 
Chironius fuscus 59: 17. 
Chiropterotriton 89: 289. 
Chiropterotriton abscondens 

61: 177. 
Chorophilus feriarum 48: 107. 
Chorophilus nigritus 20: 1; 

23: 9. 
Chorophilus nigritus feriarum 

15: 121. 
Chorophilus nigritus 

septentrionalis 69: 169. 
Chorophilus nigritus 

verrucosus 48: 107. 
Chorophilus occidentalis 21: 

53; 21: 85; 23: 9. 
Chorophilus ornatus 21: 53; 

23: 9. 
Chorophilus septentrionalis 

69: 169. 
Chorophilus triseriatus 21: 

53; 22: 115; 48: 107; 69: 

169. 
Chorophilus triseriatus 

clarkii 21: 47; 21: 69. 
Chorophilus verrucosus 48: 

107. 
Chrysemys alabamensis 99: 

472. 
Chrysemys concinna 51: 173; 

93: 339. 
Chrysemys concinna 

suwanniensis 99: 472. 
Chrysemys elegans 20: 1. 
Chrysemys floridana 93: 3 39. 
Chrysemys floridanus 23: 9. 
Chrysemys hieroglyphica 20:1. 
Chrysemys marginata 20: 1. 
Chrysemys mobiliensis 23: 9. 
Chrysemys picta 15: 121; 33: 

129; 93: 339; B8 : 108. 
Chrysemys picta bellii 76: 

159; 90: 685. 
Chrysemys picta marginata 90: 

685. 



Chrysemys picta picta 50: 

137; 56: 168. 
Chrysemys rubriventris 23: 9; 

93: 339. 
Chrysemys rubriventris 

rubriventris 99: 472. 
Chrysemys scripta 23: 9. 
Chrysemys troosti 20: 1; 23: 

9. 
Cinosternum bauri 23: 9. 
Cinosternum flavescens 23: 9. 
Cinosternum louisianae 23: 9. 
Cinosternum pennsylvanicum 

23: 9. 
Cinosternum steindachneri 23: 

9. 
Cistuda Caroline 20: 1. 
Cistuda clausa 15: 235. 
Cistuda odorata 15: 235. 
Cistuda pennsylvanica 15: 

235. 
Clelia bitorguata 36: 185. 
Clelia clelia 59: 17. 
Clelia clelia clelia 72: 79. 
Clelia cloelia 29: 221; 36: 

185. 
Clelia fitzeringi 36: 185. 
Clemmys guttata 31: 51; 50: 

137; 76: 305. 
Clemmys guttatus 15: 121. 
Clemmys insculpta 31: 51; 43: 

13; 50: 137; Bl: 1. 
Clemmys marmorata 31: 51. 
Clemmys muhlenbergii 31: 51; 

50: 137. 
Clemmys nuchal is 31: 51. 
Cnemidophorus burti 53: 119. 
Cnemidophorus deppei 53: 119. 
Cnemidophorud deppei deppei 

42: 153; 44: 73; 74: 37. 
Cnemidophorus deppei 

infernalis 74: 37. 
Cnemidophorus gigas 74: 37. 
Cnemidophorus grahami 53: 

119. 
Cnemidophorus gularis 21: 47; 

21: 69; 21: 85; 21: 165; 53: 

119. 
Cnemidophorus gularis sericeus 

42: 153. 
Cnemidophorus guttatus 44: 

73; 53: 119. 
Cnemidophorus guttatus 

immutabilis 74: 37. 



31 



Cnemidophorus hyperythrus 

danheimae 42: 153. 
Cnemidophorus lemniscatus 29: 

221. 
Cnemidophorus metanostethus 

53: 119. 
Cnemidophorus murinus 42: 

153. 
Cnemidophorus perplexus 42: 

153; 53: 119; 53: 125. 
Cnemidophorus pictus 67: 69. 
Cnemidophorus sacki sacki 74: 

37. 
Cnemidophorus sacki i 44: 73. 
Cnemidophorus sexlineatus 15: 

121; 20: 1; 21: 69; 33: 129; 

36: 85; 42: 153; 53: 119; 

57: 124; 58: 89; Bl: 1. 
Cnemidopjhorus sexlineatus 

gularis 44: 73. 
Cnemidophorus sexlineatus 

perplexus 44: 73. 
Cnemidophorus sexlineatus 

sackii 44: 73. 
Cnemidophorus sexlineatus 

tessellatus 44: 73. 
Cnemidophorus tesselatus 21: 

165; 35: 1: 44: 73. 
Cnemidophorus tessellatus 

tessellatus 36: 85; 42: 

153; 53: 119. 
Cnemidophorus tigris 35: 1. 
Cnemidophorus undulatus 55: 

143. 
Cochranella 64: 33. 
Cochranella albomaculata 64: 

33. 
Cochranella buckleyi 64: 33. 
Cochranella chrysops 64: 33. 
Cochranella colymbiphyllum 

64: 33. 
Cochranella eurygnatha 64: 

33. 
Cochranella fleischmanni 64: 

33. 
Cochranella parambae 64: 33. 
Cochranella parvula 64: 33. 
Cochranella pulverata 64: 33. 
Cochranella uranoscopa 64: 

33. 
Cochranella valeroi 64: 33. 
Cochranella viridissima 64: 

33. 
Coleonyx brevis 71: 14. 
Coleonyx elegans 71: 149. 



Coleonyx elegans nemoralis 

74: 37. 
Coleonyx fasciatus 71: 149. 
Coleonyx mitratus 71: 149. 
Coleonyx reticulatus 71: 149. 
Coleonyx variegatus 71: 149. 
Colorhogia redimita 78: 99. 
Colostethus 93: 1177. 
Colostethus abditaurantiacus 

95: 557. 
Colostethus alagoanus 84: 

147. 
Colostethus alboguttatus 84: 

147. 
Colostethus anthonyi 84: 147. 
Colostethus anthracinus 84: 

147. 
Colostethus beebei 84: 147. 
Colostethus bocagei 84: 147. 
Colostethus bromelicola 84: 

147. 
Colostethus brunneus 84: 147. 
Colostethus capixaba 84: 147. 
Colostethus carioca 84: 147. 
Colostethus chocoensis 84: 

147. 
Colostethus collaris 84: 147. 
Colostethus dunni 84: 147. 
Colostethus elachyhistus 84: 

147. 
Colostethus festae 84: 147. 
Colostethus fuliginosus 84: 

147. 
Colostethus granuliventris 

84: 147. 
Colostethus herminae 84: 147. 
Colostethus inf raguttatus 84 : 

147. 
Colostethus inguinalis 84:147 
Colostethus intermedius 84: 

147. 
Colostethus kingsburyi 84: 147, 
Colostethus latinasus 84: 147, 
Colostethus mandelorum 84:147, 
Colostethus maechesianus 84: 

147. 
Colostethus mertensi 84: 147. 
Colostethus neblina 84: 147. 
Colostethus nexipus 99: 214. 
Colostethus nubicola 84: 147; 

93: 1177. 
Colostethus olfersioides 84: 

147. 
Colostethus palmatus 84: 147; 

95: 557. 



32 



Colostethus peruvianus 84: 

147. 
Colostethus pratti 84: 147. 
Colostethus pulchellum 84: 

147. 
Colostethus ranoides 84: 147. 
Colostethus riocosangae 84: 

147. 
Colostethus riveroi 84: 147. 
Colostethus shrevei 84: 147. 
Colostethus subpunctatus 84: 

147; 90: 60. 
Colostethus sylvatica 84: 147. 
Colostethus taeniatus 84: 147. 
Colostethus talamancae 84:147. 
Colostethus taeniatus 84: 147. 
Colostethus tricolor 84: 147. 
Colostethus trilineatus 84: 

147. 
Colostethus trinitatus 84: 

147. 
Colostethus variabilis 84: 

147. 
Colostethus vergeli 84: 147; 

95: 557. 
Colostethus vertebralis 84:147. 
Colostethus whimperi 84: 147. 
Coluber bicinctus 82: 847. 
Coluber chlorosoma 53: 125. 
Coluber coccineus 31: 99. 
Coluber constrictor 33: 129; 

Bl: 1. 
Coluber constrictor 

constrictor 50: 137. 
Coluber constrictor 

flaviventris 44: 11. 
Coluber doliatus 31: 99. 
Coluber elapsoides 31: 99. 
Coluber emoryi 23: 115. 
Coluber erythrogaster Bl: 1. 
Coluber flagellum 33: 129. 
Coluber guttatus 20: 1; 22: 

129; 23: 9; Bl: 1. 
Coluber irregularis 15: 15. 
Coluber obsoletus 20: 1; Bl: 

1. 
Coluber obsoletus confinis 

23: 9. 
Coluber obsoletus confinus 

23: 115. 
Coluber obsoletus lindheimeri 

21: 69. 
Coluber quadrivittatus 15: 

36; 22: 129; 23: 9. 
Coluber rosaceus 46: 153. 



Coluber spiloides 21: 47; 21: 

69; 23: 115. 
Condylosaurus subtessellatus 

35: 229. 
Coniophanes 35: 219; 56: 109. 
Coniophanes bipunctatus 

bipunctatus 53: 55. 
Coniophanes bipunctatus 

biseriatus 53: 55. 
Coniophanes fissidens 

dispersus 72: 79. 
Conophis vittatus viduus 72: 

79; 74: 37. 
Conophis vittatus vittatus 

72: 79. 
Conopsis 56: 109. 
Conopsis nasus 53: 125. 
Constrictor constrictor 29: 

221; 36: 185. 
Constrictor constrictor 

imperator 72: 79. 
Contia episcopa isozona 56: 

109. 
Contia isozona 56: 109. 
Contia michoacanensis 56: 109. 
Contia nasus 53: 125. 
Contia taylori 56: 109. 
Contia tenuis 56: 109. 
Cophoscincus subvittatus 76: 

69. 
Cornufer boulengeri 81: 69. 
Cornufer corrugatus 80: 65. 
Cornufer corrugatus corrugatus 

21: 165. 
Cornufer corrugatus 

rubristriatus 21: 189. 
Cornufer nova-britannea 81: 

69. 
Cornufer punctata 91: 965. 
Cornufer tenasserimensis 55: 

71. 
Coronella coccinea 31: 99. 
Coronella cyclura 82: 763. 
Coronella jaegeri 98: 295. 
Corythomantis 52: 187; 55: 

151. 
Cosmiosophis 82: 847. 
Crepidophryne 93: 1177. 
Crepidophryne epioticus 99: 

42. 
Crepidus epioticus 99: 42. 
Crinia bilingua 95: 423. 
Crinia deserticola 95: 423. 
Crinia georgiana 95: 423. 
Crinia glauerti 95: 423. 



33 



Crinia haswelli 95: 423. 
Crinia insignifera 95: 423. 
Crinia parinsignifera 95: 

423. 
Crinia pseudinsignifera 95: 

423. 
Crinia remota 95: 423. 
Crinia riparia 95: 423. 
Crinia signifera 95: 423. 
Crinia sloanei 95: 423. 
Crinia subinsignifera 95: 

423. 
Crinia tinnula 95: 423. 
Crinia victoriana 95: 423. 
Crocodilurus 42: 153. 
Crocodilus americanus 

mexicanus 100: 713. 
Crocodilus americanus 

moreletii 100: 713. 
Crocodilus mexicanus 100: 

713. 
Crocodylus acutus 76: 65; 87: 

231. 
Crocodylus acutus acutus 100: 

713. 
Crocodylus moreletii 87: 231; 

100: 713. 
Crossodactylodes 51: 41. 
Crossodactylodes pintoi 51: 

41. 
Crossodactylus 98: 774; 99: 

42; 99: 100. 
Crotalus adamanteus 21: 47; 

22: 129; 23: 9. 
Crotalus atrox 21: 47; 21: 

69. 
Crotalus durissus culminatus 

72: 79. 
Crotalus horridus 15: 121; 

20: 1; 21: 47; 21: 69; 21: 

85; 22: 129; 33: 129; 57: 

33; Bl: 1. 
Crotalus lepidus 40: 57; 53: 

125. 
Crotalus molossus mollosus 

53: 125. 
Crotalus pricei 32: 213. 
Crotalus stejnegeri 32: 213. 
Crotalus tigris 32: 213. 
Crotalus triseriatus 32: 213. 
Crotalus triseriatus pricei 

53: 125. 
Crotalus willardi 53: 125. 
Crotaphopeltis 35: 229. 



Crotaphopeltis duchesnii 45: 

83. 
Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia 

hotamboeia 45: 83. 
Crotaphopeltis shrevei 45: 

83. 
Crotaphytus 21: 53. 
Crotaphytus collaris 21: 69; 

44: 11. 
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi 

36: 83; 53: 119. 
Crotaphytus collaris collaris 

53: 119. 
Crotaphytus reticulatus 53: 

119. 
Crotaphytus wislizenii 35: 1: 

53: 119. 
Cryptoblepharus 93: 350; 98: 

221. 
Cryptoblepharus boutonii 

balinensis 24: 15; 27: 201. 
Cryptoblepharus boutonii 

cursor 24: 15; 27: 201. 
Cryptoblepharus boutonii 

furcata 24: 15. 
Cryptoblepharis boutonii 

keiensis 24: 15; 27: 201. 
Cryptoblepharis boutonii 

nigropunctatus 24: 15. 
Cryptoblepharus boutonii 

paschalis 24: 15. 
Cryptoblepharus boutonii 

peronii 24: 15; 27: 201. 
Cryptoblepharus nigropunctatus 

24: 15. 
Cryptoblepharus poecilopleurus 

24: 15. 
Cryptobranchus alleghaniensis 

20: 1; 25: 135. 
Ctenosaura pectinata 74: 37. 
Ctenosaurus acanthura 53 : 

119. 
Cuora chriskaronnarum 100: 

624. 
Cuora pani 100: 624. 
Cuora trifasciatus 100: 624. 
Cuora tungia 96: 567. 
Cuora yunnanensis 100: 624. 
Cyclagras bicinctus 82: 847. 
Cyclagras gigas 82: 847. 
Cyclemys orbiculata 15: 235. 
Cyclemys trifasciata 15: 235. 
Cyclodina whitakeri 98: 221. 



34 



Cyclophis aestivus 20: 1; 21: 

47; 21: 69; 21: 85; 23: 9; 

Bl: 1. 
Cyclorhamphus 62: 57. 
Cycloramphus asper 96: 548. 
Cycloramphus boraceiensis 96: 

548. 
Cycloramphus cedrensis 96: 

548. 
Cycloramphus duseni 96: 548. 
Cycloramphus fuliginosus 96: 

548. 
Cycloramphus granulosus 96: 

548. 
Cycloramphus izecksohni 96: 

548. 
Cycloramphus lutzorum 96: 

548. 
Cycloramphus mirandaribeiroi 

96: 548. 
Cycloramphus ohausi 96: 548. 
Cycloramphus rhyakonastes 96: 

548. 
Cycloramphus semipalmatus 96: 

548. 
Cycloramphus valae 96: 548. 
Cyclorana alboguttatus 63 : 

131. 
Cyclorana australis 63: 131. 
Cyclorana slevini 63: 131. 
Cyclura 88: 367. 
Cyclura bocolopha 16: 129; 

32: 145. 
Cyclura carinata 16: 129; 29: 

215; 30: 97; 32: 145. 
Cyclura caymanensis 32: 145. 
Cyclura collei 30: 97; 32: 

145. 
Cyclura cornuta 16: 129; 32: 

145; 41: 53. 
Cyclura cornuta stejnegeri 

90: 985. 
Cyclura cyclura 16: 129. 
Cyclura inornata 29: 215; 32: 

145. 
Cyclura macleayi 32: 145. 
Cyclura mattea 32: 145. 
Cyclura nigerrima 30: 97; 32: 

145. 
Cyclura nuchalis 32: 145. 
Cyclura pinguis 30: 97; 32: 

145. 
Cyclura portoricensis 32: 

145. 



Cyclura rileyi 16: 129; 32: 

145. 
Cyclura stejnegeri 30: 97; 

32: 145. 
Cyrtodactylus pelagicus 98: 

221. 
Cystignathus fernandezi 95: 

594. 
Cystignathus insularis 95: 

594. 
Cystignathus oxyglossus 95: 

594. 

Dolophia 59: 73. 

Dasia smaragdina 27: 201. 

Dasia smaragdinum moluccarum 

24: 15. 
Dasia smaragdinum smaragdinum 

24: 15. 
Dasia smaragdinum 

viridipunctum 24: 15. 
Dasia vittata 58: 47. 
Deinagkistrodon 91: 963. 
Deinagkistrodon acutus 91: 

963. 
Deirochelys reticulata 23: 9. 
Deiroptyx bartschi 41: 169; 

71: 37. 
Deiroptyx vermiculata 41: 

169. 
Deiroptyx vermiculatus 71: 

37. 
Dendraspis jamesoni jamesoni 

49: 63. 
Dendraspis jamesoni kaimosae 

49: 63. 
Dendrelaphis caudolineatus 51: 

43. 
Dendrobates 55: 49; 84: 147; 

93: 1177; 99: 214. 
Dendrobates anthonyi 94: 67. 
Dendrobates boulengeri 94: 

67. 
Dendrobates espinosal 94: 67. 
Dendrobates femoralis 94: 67. 
Dendrobates histrionicus 95: 

557. 
Dendrobates lugubris 34: 157. 
Dendrobates myersi 94: 67. 
Dendrobates parvulus 55: 151. 
Dendrobates pumilio 93: 1177. 
Dendrobates ranoides 84: 147. 
Dendrobates talamancae 34: 

157. 
Dendrobates tricolor 94: 67. 



35 



Dendrobates truncatus 34: 

157. 
Dendrobates zaparo 94: 67. 
Dendrophidian clarki 54: 73. 
Dendrophidian dendrophis 54 : 

73. 
Dendrophidian paucicarinatus 

54: 73. 
Dendrophidian percarinatus 

54: 73. 
Dendrophidian vinitor 54: 73. 
Dendrophis calligaster 27: 

201. 
Dendrophis pictus 51: 43. 
Desmognathus brimleyorum 21: 

85. 
Desmognathus fusca 20: 1; 22: 

129; 25: 135; 29: 73; Bl: 1. 
Desmognathus fusca auriculata 

23: 9. 
Desmognathus fuscus 61: 127. 
Desmognathus fuscus fuscus 

15: 121; 33: 129; 50: 137; 

58: 39. 
Desmognathus monticola 29: 

73; 33: 129; 58: 39; 71: 

153. 
Desmognathus nigra 25: 135. 
Desmognathus ochrophaea 25: 

135. 
Desmognathus ochrophaea 

carolinensis 29: 73; 33: 

129. 
Desmognathus ochrophaea 

ochrophaea 29: 73. 
Desmognathus phoca 58: 39. 
Desmognathus quadramaculata 

25: 135; 29: 73; 76: 153. 
Desmognathus quadra-maculatus 

33: 129. 
Diadophis punctatus 15: 121; 

20: 1; 22: 129; 23: 9. 
Diadophis punctatus edwardsii 

33: 129; 50: 137. 
Diadophis punctatus punctatus 

58: 131. 
Diadophis regalis 21: 69; 21: 

85. 
Diadophis regalis arizonae 

53: 125. 
Diadophis regalis arnyi 21: 

69. 
Diaglena 52: 187. 
Diaglena reticulata 55: 151. 
Diaglena spatulata 55: 151. 



Dicamptodon ensatus 43: 55; 

61: 127. 
Dicrodon 42: 153. 
Dicroglossus blythii 55: 

49. 
Dicroglossus brevipalmatus 

55: 49. 
Dicroglossus cancrivora 55: 

49. 
Dicroglossus corrugata 55: 

49. 
Dicroglossus cyanophlyctis 55: 

49. 
Dicroglossus doriae 55: 49. 
Dicroglossus galamensis 55: 

49. 
Dicroglossus grayi 55: 49. 
Dicroglossus grunniens 55: 

49. 
Dicroglossus kuhlii 55: 49. 
Dicroglossus leytensis 55: 

49. 
Dicroglossus limnocharis 55: 

49. 
Dicroglossus macrodon 55: 49. 
Dicroglossus microdisca 55: 

49. 
Dicroglossus microtympanum 

55: 49. 
Dicroglossus modesta 55: 49. 
Dicroglossus occipitalis 55: 

49. 
Dicroglossus tigerina 55: 49. 
Diemictylus viridescens 15: 

121. 
Diemyctylus ensicauda 51: 

159. 
Diemyctylus meridionalis 21: 

47. 
Diemyctylus viridescens 20: 

1: 21: 47; 23: 9; 25: 135. 
Diemyctylus viridescens 

meridionalis 21: 53; 21: 

69. 
Diemyctylus viridescens 

miniatus 21: 53. 
Diploglossus analpistus 92: 

1. 
Diploglossus barbouri 82: 

777. 
Diploglossus costatus 82: 

777. 
Diploglossus crusculus 82: 

777. 



36 



Diploglossus curtissi 82: 

777. 
Diploglossus darlingtoni 82: 

777. 
Diploglossus delasagra 82: 

777. 
Diploglossus duquesneyi 82: 

777. 
Diploglossus hewardi 82: 777. 
Diploglossus microblepharis 

82: 777. 
Diploglossus montisserrati 

82: 777. 
Diploglossus occiduus 82: 

777. 
Diploglossus pleii 82: 777. 
Diploglossus sepsoides 82: 

777. 
Diploglossus stenurus 

alloeides 82: 777. 
Diploglossus stenurus rugosus 

82: 777. 
Diploglossus warreni 82: 777; 

92: 1. 
Diplolaemus bibronii 34: 139. 
Diplolaemus darwinii 34: 139. 
Diporophora bilineata 27: 

201. 
Dipsadomorphus 15: 15. 
Dipsas latifasciatus 59: 17. 
Dipsas schunkii 59: 17. 
Dipsosaurus dorsalis 

carmenensis 67: 69. 
Dipso-saurus dorsalis 

sonoriensis 53: 119. 
Discodeles bufoniformis 91: 

965. 
Discodeles guppyi 91: 965. 
Discodeles tenasserimensis 

55: 71. 
Disteira godeffroyi 60; 1. 
Disteira orientalis 14: 189. 
Doliophis bilineata 57: 105. 
Dracaena 42: 153. 
Draco cornutus 16: 59. 
Draco gracilis 16: 59. 
Dromica 35: 219. 
Dromicus amazonicus 35: 219. 
Dromicus w-nigrum 41: 127. 
Dryadophis melanolomus stuarti 
72: 79. 

Dryadophis pleei B2 : 199. 
Drymarchon 76: 153. 
Drymarchon corais 29: 221. 



Drymarchon corais rubidus 72: 

79. 
Drymobius boddaertii 28: 71; 

29: 221; 36: 185; 86: 231. 
Drymobius boddaertii bruesi 

51: 147. 
Drymobius chloroticus 54: 73. 
Drymobius margaritiferus 

fistulosus 72: 79. 
Dugandia 82: 847. 

Echis carinatus pyramidum 83: 

477. 
Ecpleopus af finis 57: 97. 
Ecpleopus bogotensis 42: 99. 
Ecpleopus gaudichaudii 57: 

97. 
Ecpleopus lutzae 57: 97. 
Edalorhina perezi 55: 151. 
Eirenis persica 83: 477. 
Eirenis punctatolineata 83: 

477. 
Elachistocleis ovalis 55: 

151. 
Elaphe bairdi 43: 73. 
Elaphe chlorosoma 53: 125. 
Elaphe conspicillata 42: 129. 
Elaphe guttata 45: 5; 46: 

153; 58: 89. 
Elaphe laeta 44: 11. 
Elaphe laeta intermontanus 

55: 133. 
Elaphe laeta laeta 55: 133. 
Elaphe melanura 51: 43. 
Elaphe obsoleta confinis 33: 

129. 
Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta 50: 

137. 
Elaphe periacea 42: 129. 
Elaphe quadrivittata deckerti 

45: 5. 
Elaphe quadrivittata 

quadrivittata 45: 5. 
Elaphe rosacea 45: 5; 46: 153 
Elaphe triaspis intermedia 

72: 779. 
Elapochrous deppei 54: 119. 
Elapomorphus blumii 27: 199. 
Elapomorphus michoacanensis 

56: 109. 
Elapomorphus nuchalis 27: 

199. 
Elaps fitzingeri 55: 63. 
Elaps fulvius 21: 47; 21: 69; 

23: 9. 



37 



Elaps schrankii 82: 847. 
Eleutherodactylus 28: 131; 

53: 125; 93: 1177; 94: 413; 

95: 557; 98: 774. 
Eleutherodactylus abbotti 36: 

93; 78: 165. 
Eleutherodactylus achatinus 

87: 381; 90: 424; 92: 498. 
Eleutherodactylus acuminatus 

87: 381: 88: 351. 
Eleutherodactylus af finis 90: 

60. 
Eleutherodactylus alcoae 88: 

367. 
Eleutherodactylus alfredi 52: 

187; 54: 197; 80: 211; 93: 

928. 
Eleutherodactylus altae 93: 

928; 94: 413. 
Eleutherodactylus 

altamazonicus 34: 157; 91: 

418 
Eleutherodactylus alticola 

90: 194. 
Eleutherodactylus andicola 

100: 337. 
Eleutherodactylus andrewsi 

90: 194. 
Eleutherodactylus anotis 93: 

327. 
Eleutherodactylus antillensis 

30: 97. 
Eleutherodactylus anzuetoi 

54: 197. 
Eleutherodactylus 

appendiculatus 83: 221. 
Eleutherodactylus areolatus 

87: 381. 
Eleutherodactylus armstrongi 

78: 165. 
Eleutherodactylus 

auriculatoides 45: 191. 
Eleutherodactylus auriculatus 

70: 209; 71: 37; 78: 165; 

90: 194; 90: 424. 
Eleutherodactylus baryecuus 

93: 327. 
Eleutherodactylus 

berkenbuschii 93: 928. 
Eleutherodactylus binotatus 

98: 657. 
Eleutherodactylus biporcatus 

83: 221. 
Eleutherodactylus bogotensis 

90: 60. 



Eleutherodactylus bransfordi 

34: 157. 
Eleutherodactylus brocchi 37: 

65; 54: 197; 93: 928. 
Eleutherodactylus bufonoides 

80: 211. 
Eleutherodactylus cabrerai 

93: 327. 
Eleutherodactylus cactorum 

53: 55. 
Eleutherodactylus calcarulatus 

92: 498. 
Eleutherodactylus carvalhoi 

87: 381. 
Eleutherodactylus 

caryophyllaceus 93: 928; 

94: 413. 
Eleutherodactylus cavernicola 

90: 194. 
Eleutherodactylus cerasinus 

93: 928; 94: 413. 
Eleutherodactylus ceresinus 

34: 157. 
Eleutherodactylus chalceus 

92: 498. 
Eleutherodactylus chiastonotus 

90: 424. 
Eleutherodactylus colodactylus 

93: 327. 
Eleutherodactylus 

conspicillatus 35: 111; 83: 

221; 90: 424; 91: 418; 100: 

337. 
Eleutherodactylus cogui 91: 

123. 
Eleutherodactylus cornutus 

83: 221. 
Eleutherodactylus cosnipatae 

91: 418; 100: 337. 
Eleutherodactylus cremmobates 

92: 498. 
Eleutherodactylus crenunguis 

92: 498. 
Eleutherodactylus 

croceoinguinis 87: 381. 
Eleutherodactylus cruentus 

92: 498; 93: 928; 94: 413. 
Eleutherodactylus cruralis 

100: 337. 
Eleutherodactylus cundalli 

90: 194. 
Eleutherodactylus danae 91: 

418; 100: 337. 
Eleutherodactylus decoratus 

80: 211; 93: 928. 



38 



Eleutherodactylus 

87: 381. 
Eleutherodactylus 

34: 157. 
Eleutherodactylus 

70: 209; 71: 37; 
Eleutherodactylus 

100: 337. 
Eleutherodactylus 

413. 
Eleutherodactylus 

93: 327. 
Eleutherodactylus 

111. 
Eleutherodactylus 

71: 37. 
Eleutherodactylus 

60. 
Eleutherodactylus 

90: 424; 94: 404 
Eleutherodactylus 

83: 221; 90: 424 

92: 498; 93: 928 
Eleutherodactylus 

51: 93. 
Eleutherodactylus 

34: 157. 
Eleutherodactylus 

928; 94: 404. 
Eleutherodactylus 

100: 337. 
Eleutherodactylus 

194. 
Eleutherodactylus 

221. 
Eleutherodactylus 

71: 37. 
Eleutherodactylus 

88: 351. 
Eleutherodactylus 

37: 65. 
Eleutherodactylus 

54: 197; 83: 221 
Eleutherodactylus 

194. 
Eleutherodactylus 

90: 194. 
Eleutherodactylus 

90: 424. 
Eleutherodactylus 

91: 418; 100: 33 
Eleutherodactylus 

209; 71: 37. 
Eleutherodactylus 

83: 221; 98: 657 



diastema 

diastemma 

dimidiatus 

78: 165. 
discoidalis 

dubitus 94: 

duellmani 

dunnii 35: 

eileenae 

elegans 90: 

fenestratus 
; 100: 337. 
f itzingeri 
; 91: 418; 
; 94: 404. 
f lavescens 

f leishmanni 

f rater 93: 

fraudator 

fuscus 90: 

galdi 83: 

gehrmanni 

glandulosus 

goldmani 

gollmeri 
; 90: 424. 
gossei 90: 

grabhami 

grandoculis 

granulosus 

7. 

greyi 70: 

guentheri 



Eleutherodactylus 

guerreroensis 8 
Eleutherodactylus 

381. 
Eleutherodactylus 

78: 165. 
Eleutherodactylus 

90: 424; 94: 404 
Eleutherodactylus 

78: 165. 
Eleutherodactylus 

heterodactylum 
Eleutherodactylus 

80: 211. 
Eleutherodactylus 

657. 
Eleutherodactylus 

657. 
Eleutherodactylus 

34: 157. 
Eleutherodactylus 

94: 404. 
Eleutherodactylus 

90: 424. 
Eleutherodactylus 

30: 97; 41: 53; 
Eleutherodactylus 

30: 97. 
Eleutherodactylus 

90: 194. 
Eleutherodactylus 

51: 147; 90: 194 
Eleutherodactylus 

165. 
Eleutherodactylus 

194. 
Eleutherodactylus 

78: 165. 
Eleutherodactylus 

90: 424. 
Eleutherodactylus 

657. 
Eleutherodactylus 

34: 157. 
Eleutherodactylus 

90: 424; 94: 404 
Eleutherodactylus 

87: 381: 94: 41 
Eleutherodactylus 

tamsitti 92: 49 
Eleutherodactylus 

71; 30: 97. 
Eleutherodactylus 

leptodactyloides 



0: 211. 
gularis 87: 

gundlachi 

guttural is 

heminota 

90: 424. 
hidalgoensis 

hoehnei 98: 

holti 98: 

humeral is 

incomptus 

inguinalis 

inoptatus 
78: 165. 
insignatus 

jamaicensis 

johnstonei 

jugans 78: 

junori 90: 

klinikowskii 

lacrimosus 

lactea 98: 

lanciformis 

lanthanites 

latidiscus 

3. 

latidiscus 

8. 

lentus 28: 

84: 163. 



39 



Eleutherodactylus leucopus 

88: 351. 
Eleutherodactylus lindae 91: 

418; 100: 337. 
Eleutherodactylus longirostris 

37: 65. 
Eleutherodactylus loustes 92: 

498. 
Eleutherodactylus luteolus 

90: 194. 
Eleutherodactylus lutosus 

lutosus 94: 413. 
Eleutherodactylus lutosus 

molinoi 94: 413. 
Eleutherodactylus lymani 83:221. 
Eleutherodactylus lynchi 90:60. 
Eleutherodactylus marmoratus 

90: 424; 94: 404. 
Eleutherodactylus marshae 94: 

413. 
Eleutherodactylus martiae 87: 

381: 94: 404. 
Eleutherodactylus 

martinicensis 29: 215; 29: 

221; 51: 147; 86: 231. 
Eleutherodactylus 

melanostictus 54: 197.; 93: 

928; 94: 413. 
Eleutherodactylus mendax 91: 

418; 100: 337. 
Eleutherodactylus mercedesae 

100: 337. 
Eleutherodactylus mexicanus 

54: 87. 
Eleutherodactylus milesi 49:43. 
Eleutherodactylus monensis 

90: 985. 
Eleutherodactylus monnichorum 

93: 928. 
Eleutherodactylus moro 87: 

381; 93: 928. 
Eleutherodactylus necerus 92: 

498. 
Eleutherodactylus neodreptus 

78: 165. 
Eleutherodactylus nicefori 

90: 60. 
Eleutherodactylus nigriventris 

95: 377; 98: 657. 
Eleutherodactylus 

nigrovittatus 83: 221. 
Eleutherodactylus noblei 34:157. 
Eleutherodactylus nubicola 

90: 194. 



Eleutherodactylus nyctophylax 

100: 337. 
Eleutherodactylus occidentalis 

54: 87. 
Eleutherodactylus orcutti 90: 

194. 
Eleutherodactylus ornatissimus 

87: 381. 
Eleutherodactylus orphnolaimus 

83: 221. 
Eleutherodactylus palmeri 

100: 337. 
Eleutherodactylus pantoni 90: 

194. 
Eleutherodactylus parabotes 

78: 165. 
Eleutherodactylus pardalis 

93: 928; 94: 413. 
Eleutherodactylus parvus 98: 

657. 
Eleutherodactylus paululus 

87: 381; 88: 351. 
Eleutherodactylus peraltae 

94: 413. 
Eleutherodactylus peruvianus 

91: 418. 
Eleutherodactylus 

pharangobates 91: 418; 100: 

337. 
Eleutherodactylus planirostris 

90: 194. 
E 1 eutherodacty lus 

platydactylus 91: 418; 100: 

337. 
Eleutherodactylus 

platyrhynchus 93: 928. 
Eleutherodactylus polyptychus 

34: 157. 
Eleutherodactylus poolei 51: 

93. 
Eleutherodactylus 

pseudoacuuminatus 87: 381. 
Eleutherodactylus pugnax 93: 

327. 
Eleutherodactylus pulvinatus 

83: 221; 90: 424. 
Eleutherodactylus pusillus 

98: 657. 
Eleutherodactylus guixensis 

84: 163. 
Eleutherodactylus randorum 

98: 657. 
Eleutherodactylus rayo 93:928. 
Eleutherodactylus rhabdolaemus 

100: 337. 



40 



Eleutherodactylus rhodopus 

34: 157; 37: 65. 
Eleutherodactylus ricordi 

planirostris 70: 209. 
Eleutherodactylus ricordi 

rogersi 79: 209. 
Eleutherodactylus ricordii 

23: 100; 71: 37; 78: 165; 

90: 194. 
Eleutherodactylus ridens 93: 

928; 94: 413. 
Eleutherodactylus rostral is 

54: 197. 
Eleutherodactylus rubicundus 

92: 498. 
Eleutherodactylus 

ruf ifemoralis 78: 165. 
Eleutherodactylus rugosus 34: 

157. 
Eleutherodactylus rugulosus 

83: 221; 93: 928. 
Eleutherodactylus ruidus 93: 

327. 
Eleutherodactylus ruthae 78: 

165. 
Eleutherodactylus salaputium 

91: 418; 100: 337. 
Eleutherodactylus sallaei 35: 

111; 37: 65. 
Eleutherodactylus saltator 

54: 87. 
Eleutherodactylus savagei 94: 

404. 
Eleutherodactylus scitulus 

100: 337. 
Eleutherodactylus silvicola 

80: 211. 
Eleutherodactylus sisyphodemus 

90: 194. 
Eleutherodactylus sobetes 93: 

327. 
Eleutherodactylus sonans 71:37, 
Eleutherodactylus spanios 98: 

657. 
Eleutherodactylus spatulatus 

52: 187; 54: 197; 80: 211. 
Eleutherodactylus stadelmani 

49: 43. 
Eleutherodactylus surdus 

cabrera i 93: 327. 
Eleutherodactylus surdus 

surdus 93: 327. 
Eleutherodactylus symingtoni 

70: 209; 71: 37. 



Eleutherodactylus taeniatus 

94: 404; 94: 413. 
Eleutherodactylus talamancae 

93: 928. 
Eleutherodactylus 

terraebolivaris 90:424; 94:404 
Eleutherodactylus tiptoni 94:413 
Eleutherodactylus 

trachyblepharis 87: 381. 
Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus 

90: 60; 90: 424; 91: 418; 

92: 498; 93: 327; 93: 928; 

94: 404; 100: 337. 
Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus 

hosti 98: 657. 
Eleutherodactylus urichii 51: 

147; 90: 424. 
Eleutherodactylus varians 71:37. 
Eleutherodactylus varleyi 70: 

209; 71: 37. 
Eleutherodactylus venancioi 

98: 657. 
Eleutherodactylus 

ventrilineatus 78: 165. 
Eleutherodactylus 

ventrimarmoratus 91: 418; 

94: 413. 
Eleutherodactylus vertebral is 

90: 60. 
Eleutherodactylus vilarsi 90: 

424; 94: 404. 
Eleutherodactylus vocalis 93:928. 
Eleutherodactylus walkeri 87:381. 
Eleutherodactylus wetmorei 

45: 191. 
Eleutherodactylus w-nigrum 

92: 498. 
Eleutherodactylus xucanebi 

54: 197. 
Eleutherodactylus zeuctotylus 

90: 424. 
Eleutherodactylus zeus 71: 37. 
Elgaria formosa 15: 37. 
Elosia aspera 95: 377. 
Elosia bufonium 95: 377. 
Elosia glabra 95: 377; 99:100. 
Elosia lateristrigata 99: 100. 
Elosia lateristrigatus 95: 377. 
Elosia magalhaesi 95: 377. 
Elosia nasus meridionalis 95: 

377. 
Elosia nasuta 95: 377. 
Elosia ornata 95: 377. 
Elosia perplicata 95: 377. 
Elosia pulchra 99: 100. 



41 



Emoia caeruleocauda 93: 350. 

Emoia concolor 93: 350. 

Emoia cyanura 93: 350; 98:221. 

Emoia murphy i 93: 3 50. 

Emoia nigra 93: 350. 

Emoia parkeri 93: 350. 

Emoia samoensis 93:350; 98:221. 

Emoia speiseri 93: 350. 

Emys castanea 15: 235. 

Emys geoffroana 22: 125. 

Emys gibba 22; 125. 

Emys mobilensis 51: 173. 

Emys nasuta 22: 125. 

Emys picta Bl: 1. 

Emys radiolata 22: 125. 

Emys ruficeps 22: 125. 

Emys subnigra 15: 2 35. 

Emys virgulata Bl: 1. 

Endryas quinquilineatus 50: 11. 

Engystoma areolata 22: 115; 

23: 115. 
Engystoma carol inense 21: 47; 

21: 53; 21: 69; 21: 85; 21: 

199; 22: 115; 23: 9; 23: 

165. 
Engystoma ornata 51: 159. 
Engystoma ovale 27; 77. 
Engystoma rugosum 23: 165. 
Engystoma texense 21: 53; 22: 

115; 23: 115. 
Ensatina croceater 43: 55. 
Ensatina eschscholtzii 43: 55; 

47: 169. 
Ensatina klauberi 43: 55. 
Ensatina sierrae 43: 55. 
Enulius unicolor 72: 79. 
Epicrates cenchria 29: 221. 
Epicrates chrysogaster 29: 215. 
Epicrates fordii 29: 215. 
Epicrates monensis monensis 

90: 985. 
Eremias guttulata watsonane 

83: 477. 
Ergilemys 96: 567. 
Erythrolamprus aesculapii 

aesculapii 49: 43. 
Erythrolamprus aesculapii 

impar 49: 43. 
Endryas amarali 86: 231. 
Eugonglylus 98: 221. 
Eumeces altamirani 49: 55. 
Eumeces anthracinus 23: 115; 

46: 129; 57: 123. 
Eumeces brevilineatus 21: 

165; 23: 115. 



Eumeces brevirostris 46: 129; 

46: 175. 
Eumeces callicephalus 46: 

175; 49: 55; 53: 125. 
Eumeces copei 46: 12 9; 49: 

55; 53: 119. 
Eumeces dicei 46: 175. 
Eumeces fasciatus 15: 12 

21:165; 22:129; 23:9; 5 
Eumeces guttulatus 23: 1 



Eumeces humilis 46: 175. 
Eumeces inexpectatus 58 : 
Eumeces kishinouyei 14: 
Eumeces laticeps 59:165; 
Eumeces lynxe lynxe 56: 
Eumeces managuae 46:67; 4 
Eumeces multivirgatus 23: 
Eumeces obsoletus 21:69; 
Eumeces ochoteranae 46: 

46: 175; 74: 37. 
Eumeces pachyurus 23: 11 
Eumeces parviauriculatus 

175; 53: 125. 
Eumeces parvulus 46: 175 
Eumeces guinqueliineatus 

1; 21: 47; 21: 69; 21 

21: 165; 22: 115; 23: 1 
Eumeces schmidti 46: 67. 
Eumeces schneideri 83: 4 
Eumeces schwartzei 46:67; 
Eumeces scutatus 46: 67. 
Eumeces septentrional is 4 

129; 76: 159. 



1; 

0:137. 

15. 

131. 
189. 
64:59. 
109. 
9:55. 

115. 
23:115, 
129; 

5. 
46: 



Eumeces taeniolatus 46: 
Eumeces tetragrammus 21: 
23: 115. 

84: 147. 
bolbodactyla 98 
olfersioidews 8 
pustulosus 37: 



20: 
85; 
15. 

77. 
49:55, 

6: 

67. 
47; 



Eupemphix 
Eupemphix 
Eupemphix 
Eupemphix 

55: 151, 
Eupemphix 
Eupemphix 
Eupsophus 

98: 411. 
Eupsophus 
Eupsophus 

594. 
Eupsophus 

98: 411. 
Eupsophus 
Eupsophus 

98: 411. 
Eupsophus 



schereri 55: 1 
trinitatus 29: 
calcaratus 95: 

coppingeri 93: 
grayi insularis 



: 657 

4:147 

65; 

51. 
221. 
594; 

920. 
95: 



insularis 95: 594; 

juminensis 98: 774 
migueli 95: 594; 

peruanua 98: 774. 



42 



bislineata 
■ 50: 141; 

cirrigera 

major 62:89 
rivicola 



129 



141, 
77. 



Eupsophus roseus 95: 594; 98 

411. 
Eupsophus vanzolinii 93: 920 
Eupsophus vittatus 95: 594; 

98: 411. 
Eupsophus wettsteini 98: 774 
Eurycea 40: 123. 
Eurycea bislineata 

33: 129; 50: 137 

62: 89; 69: 93. 
Eurycea bislineata 

33: 129; 62: 89. 
Eurycea bislineata 
Eurycea bislineata 

62: 89. 
Eurycea bislineata wilderae 

33: 129; 62: 89. 
Eurycea gutto-lineata 33 
Eurycea latitans 63: 51. 
Eurycea longicauda 33: 129 

50: 137. 
Eurycea longicauda 

guttolineata 56: 167. 
Eurycea lucifuga 57: 31. 
Eurycea melanopleura 50 
Eurycea multiplicata 54 
Eurycea nana 63: 51. 
Eurycea neotenes 50:141; 63 
Eurycea pterophila 63: 51. 
Eurycea guadridigitata 

guadridigitata 50: 141. 
Euspondylus guentheri 57 

99: 214. 
Eutaenia brachystoma 
butleri 58: 
dorsalis 21 
elegans marciana 
egues 21: 69; 21: 
marciana 21: 69. 
proxima 21: 47; 21: 

85. 
sackeni 23: 9. 
sirtalis 20: 1; 21 
9. 
Eutaenia sirtalis parietalis 

21: 69; 21: 85. 
Eutaenia sirtalis 

21: 69. 
Eutaenia saurita 20 
Eutainia brachystoma 
Eutania sirtalis 16 
Exostinus lancensis 
Exostinus rugosus 86 



51 



Eutaenia 
Eutaenia 
Eutaenia 
Eutaenia 
Eutaenia 
Eutaenia 

69; 21 
Eutaenia 
Eutaenia 

47; 23 



58: 

147 

69 



97 



147 



21:47, 
85. 



sirtalis 



83 



1. 
16: 
83. 
86: 105, 
105. 



Exostinus serratus 86: 105. 



Farancia abacura 21: 47; 22: 

129; 23: 9. 
Ficimia 56: 109. 
Ficimia desertorum 49: 51. 
Ficimia elalocroma 49: 51. 
Ficimia olivacea 49: 51. 
Ficimia ornata 49: 51. 
Ficimia publia 49: 51. 
Ficimia guadrangularis 49: 51. 
Ficimia variegata 49: 51. 

Garbeana 55: 151. 
Gastrophryne aeguatorialis 

23: 165. 
Gastrophryne albopunctata 23: 

165. 
Gastrophryne areolata 23: 165. 
Gastrophryne borneensis 23: 165. 
Gastrophryne carolinensis 23: 

165; 58: 89; 74: 157. 
Gastrophryne elegans 23: 165. 
Gastrophryne leucosticta 23:165. 
Gastrophryne microps 23: 165. 
Gastrophryne muelleri 23: 165. 
Gastrophryne olivacea 74: 157. 
Gastrophryne ovale 27: 77. 
Gastrophryne ovalis 23: 165. 
Gastrophryne pictiventris 23:165, 
Gastrophryne texana 23: 165. 
Gastrophryne usta 23: 165. 
Gastrotheca 90: 60. 
Gastrotheca coronata 52: 187. 
Gastrotheca griswoldi 98: 774. 
Gastrotheca marsupiata 100: 337. 
Geckolepis 57: 1. 
Gehyra 54: 195. 
Gekko athymus 75: 67. 
Gekko pumilus 75: 67. 
Geochelone demissa 96: 
Geochelone elephantopus 

abingdoni B8 : 108. 
Geochelone emys 96: 567 
Geochelone gigantea B8 : 

B8: 129. 
Geochelone impressa 96: 5 
Geochelone insolitus 96: 
Geochelone kalsanensis 96: 
Geochelone lunanensis 96: 
Geochelone oskarkuhni 96: 
Geochelone radiata B8 : 10 
Geochelone sulcata 96: 56 
Geochelone ulanensis 96: 
Geochelone yniphora B8 : 1 
Geochelone yunanensis 96: 
Geocrinia laevis 95: 423. 



567. 



108; 

567. 

567. 
: 567, 

567. 

567. 

8. 

7. 

567. 

08. 
567, 



43 



Geoemyda spengleri 15: 2 35. 
Geoemyda spinosa 15: 235. 
Geoemys spengleri 15: 235. 
Geophis anocularis 33: 127. 
Geophis dubius 33: 127. 
Geophis godmani 33: 127. 
Geophis nasalis 62: 165. 
Geophis omiltemana 72: 79. 
Geophis rostralis 33: 127. 
Gerrhonotus burnettii 15: 37. 
Gerrhonotus caeruleus 15: 37. 
Gerrhonotus coeruleus 

coeruleus 58: 5. 
Gerrhonotus coeruleus palmeri 

58: 5. 
Gerrhonotus coeruleus 

principis 58: 5. 
Gerrhonotus coeruleus 

shastensis 58: 5. 
Gerrhonotus coeruleus 

utahensis 58: 5. 
Gerrhonotus kingii 53: 125. 
Gerrhonotus liocephalus 

liocephalus 74: 37. 
Gerrhonotus nobilis 53: 125. 
Glauconia dulcis 21:47; 21:69. 
Glauconia emini 54: 175. 
Glyphodon tristis 27: 201. 
Gonatodes notatus 41: 53. 
Gonyocephalus spinipes 27: 201. 
Gopherus agassizi B8: 108. 
Gopherus berlandieri 96: 567. 
Gopherus flavomarginatus B8:108. 
Gopherus polyphemus 48 :79 ;B8 : 108, 
Graptemys 93: 3 39. 
Graptemys barbouri 76: 153. 
Graptemys f lavimaculata 76: 153. 
Graptemys geographica 21: 69. 
Graptemys nigrinoda 76: 153. 
Graptemys oculifera 76: 153. 
Graptemys pseudogeographica Bl:l, 
Graptemys pseudogeographica 

pseudogeographica 56: 168. 
Graptemys pulchra 23: 9; 76: 

153. 
Gymnodactylus amarali 38: 101. 
Gymnodactylus pelagicus 27: 201. 
Gymnodactylus rubidus 64: 91. 
Gymnodactylus serpensinsula 

64: 91. 
Gymnophis nicefori 37: 125. 
Gymnophthalmus 53: 19. 
Gymnophthalmus birdi 78: 141. 
Gymnophthalmus lineatus 78: 141. 
Gymnophthalmus luetkeni 78: 141. 



Gymnophthalmus pleei 78: 141. 
Gymnophthalmus pleei luetkeni 

78: 141. 
Gymnophthalmus pleei nesydrion 

78: 141. 
Gymnophthalmus pleei pleei 

78: 141. 
Gymnophthalmus speciosus 78:141. 
Gymnophthalmus sumichrasti 

78: 141. 
Gymnophthalmus underwoodi 78:141, 
Gyrinophilus danielsi 33: 129. 
Gyrinophilus porphyriticus 

25: 135; 33: 129. 

Hadrianus 96: 567. 
Haideotriton wallacei 76: 153. 
Haldea striatula 21: 47; 21: 

69; 21: 85; 22: 129; 23: 9; 

23: 115. 
Helminthophis albirostris 45:173 
Helminthophis bondensis 45: 17 3. 
Helminthophis canellei 45: 173. 
Helminthophis emunctus 45: 173. 
Helminthophis f lavoterminatus 

39: 123. 
Helminthophis frontalis 39: 123; 

45: 173. 
Helminthophis petersii 45: 173. 
Helminthopis 36: 185. 
Helocaetes feriarum 68: 155. 
Heloderma horridum 44: 73; 

53: 119; 74: 37. 
Heloderma suspectum 53: 119. 
Hemidactylium 43: 55. 
Hemidactylium scutatum 15: 

121; 31: 51; 50: 137. 
Hemidactylum scutatum 20: 1. 
Hemidactylus 57: 1. 
Hemidactylus brookii 49: 59. 
Hemidactylus citernil 49: 59. 
Hemidactylus frenatus 27: 

201; 74: 37. 
Hemidactylus greeffi 54: 195. 
Hemidactylus maboiua 28: 71. 
Hemidactylus mabouia 49: 59; 

51: 147; 90: 985. 
Hemidactylus mandanus 49: 59. 
Hemidactylus parkeri 49: 59. 
Hemidactylus puccuonii 49: 59. 
Hemidactylus turcicus 61: 159. 
Hemiphractus 52: 187. 
Heosemys 15: 235. 
Heosemys depressa 15: 235. 
Heosemys grandis 15: 235. 



44 



129 



121, 

l; 
22: 



Heosemys spinosa 15: 235. 
Herpetodryas carinatus 28 
Hesperotestudo 96: 567. 
Heterodon 18: 73. 
Heterodon browni 16: 123. 
Heterodon contortrix 33: 

50: 137. 
Heterodon nasicus nasicus 

76:159. 
Heterodon platirhinos 15: 
Heterodon platyrhinos 20: 

21: 47; 21: 69; 21: 85; 

129; 23: 9. 
Heterodon simus 22:129; 23:9 
Hinulia elegans 58: 47. 
Hispaniolus 41: 49. 
Hispaniolus pratensis 41: 49 
Holbrookia 53: 119. 
Holbrookia maculata 

approximans 53: 125. 
Holbrookia maculata lacerata 

21: 69. 
Holbrookia 

44: 11. 
Holbrookia 

40: 57. 
Holbrookia 

45: 15. 
Holbrookia 

45: 15. 
Holbrookia 



71, 



maculata maculata 



propinqua 21:47; 



propinqua propinqua 



propinqua stonei 



texana 



57 



21:69; 40 
Holoectes clarkii 21: 53. 
Homalocranium atrocinctum 

56: 109. 
Homalocranium michoacanense 

56: 109. 
Homopholis wahlbergii arnoldi 

57: 1. 
Homopholis wahlbergii 

wahlbergii 57: 1. 
Homolepida crassicauda 27: 201 
Homophis bergeri B8 : 108. 
Hydraspis galeata 22: 125. 
Hydrodynastes bicinctus 82: 

847. 
Hydromedusa tectifera 99: 472. 
Hydrophis ornatus inornatus 60:! 
Hydrophis ornatus maresinensis 

60: 1. 
Hydrophis 

60: 1. 
Hydrophis ornatus ornatus 60: 1. 
Hydrophis 



ornatus ocellatus 



ornatus 

semperi 
Hydrosaurus amboinensis 
Hydrosaurus microlophus 



ornatus 60: 
51: 209. 

24: 
24: 



157. 



63:131, 

131. 
31. 
157. 

157. 



15 
15 



Hydrosaurus pustulosus 24: 15. 

Hydrosaurus weberi 24: 15. 

Hyla 23:115; 29:85; 44:11; 52:187 

Hyla alleei 67: 159. 

Hyla angularis 58: 53. 

Hyla angustilineata 93: 1177. 

Hyla arborea 74: 157. 

Hyla arboricola 67: 159. 

Hyla arenicolor 21: 53; 43: 

55; 43: 73; 53: 125; 74 
Hyla arfakiana 58: 53. 
Hyla astartea 98: 657. 
Hyla aurea aurea 63: 131 
Hyla aurea cyclorhynchus 
Hyla aurea raniformis 63: 
Hyla aurea ulongae 63: 1 
Hyla avivoca 41: 89; 74: 
Hyla baudinii 53: 19; 74: 
Hyla becki 58: 53. 
Hyla bistincta 50: 43. 
Hyla blairi 93: 153. 
Hyla bocourti 67: 159. 
Hyla brachypus 91: 965. 
Hyla brongersmani 58: 53 
Hyla canadensis 69: 169. 
Hyla cardenasi 67: 159. 
Hyla carolinensis 8: 75. 
Hyla carvalhoi 98: 657. 
Hyla ceratophrys 55: 151, 
Hyla chica 37: 65. 
Hyla chloronota 58: 53. 
Hyla cinerea 13: 75; 21: 

21: 53; 21: 69; 22: 115 

129; 23: 9; 37: 141; 74: 
Hyla cinerea cinerea 50: < 
Hyla cinerea evittata 33: 
Hyla circumdata 98: 657. 
Hyla coerulea 27: 201. 
Hyla copii 21: 53. 
Hyla chrysoscelis 23: 115. 
Hyla crepitans 29:221; 93:153. 
Hyla crucifer 33: 129; 41: 

89; 50: 137; 74: 157; 91:123. 
Hyla crucifer crucifer 59:165. 
Hyla crucifera crucifera 69: 93; 

76: 159. 
Hyla darlingtoni 58: 53. 
Hyla debilis 93: 1177. 
Hyla dolichophis 91: 965. 
Hyla dominicensis 45: 191. 
Hyla echinata 93: 1177. 
Hyla elacochroa 93: 1177. 
Hyla erythromma 50: 43. 
Hyla euphorbeacea 67: 159. 



47; 
22: 

157 

i. 
129. 



45 



Hyla euthysanota 41: 123; 49: 

43; 67: 159. 
Hyla everetti 58: 53. 
Hyla evittata 13: 75; 15: 

199; 15: 121; 50: 9; Bl: 1. 
Hyla eximia 67: 159. 
Hyla femoral is 21: 53; 22: 

129; 23: 9; 41: 89; 74: 157. 
Hyla femoralis chrysoscelis 

23: 115; 60: 47. 
Hyla fimbrimembra 93: 1177. 
Hyla gabbii 37: 65; 49: 43. 
Hyla giesleri 93: 655. 
Hyla gratiosa 23: 9; 74: 157. 
Hyla heilprini 37: 65. 
Hyla hobbsi 91: 123. 
Hyla hylax 98: 657. 
Hyla infrafrenata militaria 

91: 965. 
Hyla izecksohni 98: 657. 
Hyla kinghorni 63: 131. 
Hyla krefftii 27: 201. 
Hyla labialis 90: 60. 
Hyla lafrantzi 67: 159. 
Hyla larinopygion 95: 557. 
Hyla latopalmata 63: 131. 
Hyla legleri 93: 1177. 
Hyla leonhard-schultzi 59: 43. 
Hyla leucophyllata 93: 153. 
Hyla loguax 93: 1177. 
Hyla lythrodes 93: 1177; 99: 51. 
Hyla marianae 90: 194. 
Hyla math ias son i 91: 123. 
Hyla microps 93: 655. 
Hyla miliaria 93: 1177. 
Hyla militaria 91: 965. 
Hyla montana 58: 53. 
Hyla nanuzae 98: 657. 
Hyla nasus 95: 377; 99: 42. 
Hyla ocellifera 64: 33. 
Hyla papuensis 58: 53. 
Hyla phaeocrypta 41: 89. 
Hyla phlebodes 50: 43. 
Hyla pickeringii 13: 75; 15: 

121; 20: 1. 
Hyla pictipes 93: 1177. 
Hyla pinorum 50: 43. 
Hyla prosoblepon 37: 65; 64:33. 
Hyla pseudopuma 93: 1177. 
Hyla pugnax 93: 1177. 
Hyla punctata 91: 123; 93: 153. 
Hyla raniformis 74: 157. 
Hyla ranoides 95: 377; 99: 42. 
Hyla regilla 21: 53; 43: 55; 

43: 73; 67: 159; 74: 157. 



Hyla reticulata 55: 151. 
Hyla richardtaylori 93: 1177. 
Hyla rivularis 93: 1177. 
Hyla robertmertensi 50: 43. 
Hyla rosenbergi 37: 65. 
Hyla rostrata 93: 153. 
Hyla rozellae 67: 159. 
Hyla ruficolis 67: 159. 
Hyla rufioculis 93: 1177; 99:51 
Hyla salvadorensis 67: 159. 
Hyla salvavida 99: 51. 
Hyla schmidtorum 99: 51. 
Hyla semifasciata 21: 53. 
Hyla septentrionalis 29: 215; 

69: 169. 
Hyla smaragdina 56: 49. 
Hyla soralia 99: 51. 
Hyla spinipollex 49:43; 67:159. 
Hyla sguirella 21: 47; 21: 53; 

22:115; 22:129; 23:9; 74:154. 
Hyla stadelmani 49: 43. 
Hyla staufferi 50: 43; 53: 19; 

93: 1177. 
Hyla taeniopus 50: 43. 
Hyla thysanota 93: 1177. 
Hyla tica 93: 1177. 
Hyla triseriata 44:11; 68:155. 
Hyla underwoodi 50: 43. 
Hyla uranochroa 67: 159; 93: 

1177; 99: 51. 
Hyla vagabunda 58: 53. 
Hyla valancifer 93: 1177. 
Hyla vanvlietti 21: 53. 
Hyla versicolor 15:121; 20:1: 

23:9; 33:129; 41:89; 74:157. 
Hyla versicolor chrysoscelis 

21: 53; 21: 69; 21: 85; 23: 

115; 60: 47. 
Hyla versicolor phaeocrypta 

41: 89. 
Hyla versicolor sandersi 60:47. 
Hyla versicolor versicolor 

50: 137; 60: 47; 76: 159. 
Hyla walkeri 67: 159. 
Hyla wandae 91: 123; 93: 153. 
Hyla wilderi 90: 194. 
Hyla wirzi 58: 53. 
Hyla wrightorum 67: 159. 
Hyla xanthosticta 93: 1177. 
Hylactophryne augusti 93: 928. 
Hylaplesia nigriventris 98:657. 
Hylarana 55: 49. 
Hylella azteca 56: 49. 
Hylella fleischmanni 37: 65. 
Hylella parabambae 64: 33. 



46 



Hylella parambae 64: 33. 
Hylella picta 50: 43; 56: 49. 
Hylella prosoblepon 37: 65. 
Hylella sumichrasti 56: 49. 
Hylella wolterstorf f i 58: 53. 
Hylixalus beebei 84: 147. 
Hylixalus chocoensis 84: 147. 
Hylixalus collaris 84: 147. 
Hylixalus granuliventris 84:147. 
Hylodes 87:81: 98:657; 98:774. 
Hylodes babax 95: 377; 99:100. 
Hylodes brocchi 93: 928. 
Hylodes calcitrans 54: 87. 
Hylodes charadranaetes 99:100. 
Hylodes cruentus 94: 413. 
Hylodes frater 94: 404. 
Hylodes glabrus 99: 100. 
Hylodes gravenhorstii 99: 42. 
Hylodes lateristrigatus 95: 

377; 99: 100. 
Hylodes maculatus 69: 169; 

76: 159. 
Hylodes magalhaesi 99: 100. 
Hylodes martinicensis 86: 

231; 99: 42. 
Hylodes melanostictus 93:928. 
Hylodes mertensi 95: 377. 
Hylodes nasus 95: 377. 
Hylodes ornatus 95:377; 99:100. 
Hylodes otavioi 99: 100. 
Hylodes phyllodes 99: 100. 
Hylodes platyrhynchus 93: 928. 
Hylodes pulcher 95:377; 99:100. 
Hylodes reguis 95:377; 99:100. 
Hylodes surdus 93: 327. 
Hylodes truncatus 95: 377. 
Hylodes vanzolinii 95: 377 ;99: 100, 
Hylopsis buckleyi 95: 557. 
Hyloxalus bocagei 84: 147. 
Hyloxalus fuliginosus 55: 

151; 84: 147. 
Hyloxalus vergeli 84: 147. 
Hynobius 30: 12 3. 
Hyperolius coccotis 51: 213. 
Hyperolius microps 45: 61: 

51: 213. 
Hyperolius parkeri 51: 213. 
Hyperolius petersii 45: 61. 
Hyperolius power i 51: 213. 
Hyperolius pusillus 51: 213. 
Hyperolius pygmaeus 45: 61. 
Hyperolius translucens 51:213. 
Hyperolius tuberilinguis 51:213. 
Hyperolius usaramoae 45: 61; 

51: 213. 



Hypnale hypnale 91: 963. 
Hypnale nepa 90:1002; 91:963. 
Hypnale walli 90:1002; 91:963. 
Hypodictyon ridens 94: 413. 
Hypopachus 50: 43. 
Hypopachus aquae 65: 1. 
Hypopachus barberi 53: 19; 

54: 125; 65: 1. 
Hypopachus championi 53: 19; 

54: 125; 67: 159; 74: 195. 
Hypopachus cuneus 21:53; 53:19. 
Hypopachus cuneus cuneus 54:125, 
Hypopachus cuneus 

nigroreticulatus 54: 125. 
Hypopachus globosus 53: 19. 
Hypopachus globulosus 54: 

12 5; 65: 1. 
Hypopachus inguinal is 53: 19; 

54: 125; 65: 1. 
Hypopachus maculata 67: 159. 
Hypopachus oxyrhinus 53: 19. 
Hypopachus pearsei 27: 77. 
Hypopachus simus 54:125; 65:1. 
Hypopachus variolosus 53: 19. 
Hypsiglena 67: 69. 

Ialtris dorsalis 41: 53; 41: 

127; 45: 189. 
Ialtris parishi 45: 189. 
Idiotyphlops emunctus 45: 173. 
Idiotyphlops flavoterminatus 

39: 123. 
Iguana delicatissima 30: 97. 
Iguana iguana 29: 221. 
Iguana iguana iguana 51: 147. 
Iguana rhinolopha 30:97; 53:119. 
Iguana tuberculata 29: 221. 
Indotestudo kaiseni 96: 567. 
Indotestudo nanus 96: 567. 
Isocelis maculata 68: 11. 
Istiurus 24: 15. 
Ixalus fergusonii 53: 105. 
Ixalus fuscus 55: 71. 
Ixalus pallidipes 21: 189. 

Japalura brevipes 49: 117. 
Japalura polygonata 49: 117. 
Japalura splendida 49: 117. 
Japalura swinhonis 49: 117. 
Japalura yunnanensis 49: 117. 

Kalophrynus pleurostigma 

pleurostigma 80: 67. 
Kaloula pulchra hainana 51:127. 
Kaloula pulchra pulchra 51:127. 



47 



Kansuchelys chiayukuanensis 

96: 567. 
Kansuchelys ovalis 96: 567. 
Kansuchelys tsiyuanensis 96:567 
Kentropyx pelviceps 42: 153. 
Kinosternon brevicaudatum 15: 

235. 
Kinosternon flavescens 21: 

47; 21: 69. 
Kinosternon flavescens 

flavescens 70: 2011. 
Kinosternon flavescens 

spooneri 70: 201. 
Kinosternon flavescens 

stejnegeri 70: 201. 
Kinosternon integrum 74: 37. 
Kinosternon longicaudatum 15: 

235. 
Kinosternon louisianae 21: 47; 

21: 69. 
Kinosternon odoratum 33: 129. 
Kinosternon pennsylvanicum 

15: 121; 20: 1. 
Kinosternon sonoriense 70: 201. 
Kinosternon subrubrum 33: 129. 
Kinosternon subrubrum 

subrubrum 50: 137. 
Kinosternon tricarinata 15:235. 

Lacerta amboinensis 24: 15. 
Lacerta homalocephala 15: 37. 
Lacerta maculata 15: 239. 
Lacerta punctata 15: 239. 
Lacerta subviolacea 15: 239. 
Lachesis atrox 32: 213. 
Lachesis aurifer 32: 213. 
Lachesis barbouri 32: 213. 
Lachesis brachystoma 32: 213. 
Lachesis godmani 32: 213. 
Lachesis lanceolatus 29: 221; 

32: 213. 
Lachesis lansbergii 32: 213. 
Lachesis mutus 32: 213. 
Lachesis nummifer 32: 213. 
Lachesis undulatus 32: 213. 
Lampropeltis 18: 73; 53: 125. 
Lampropeltis annulata 31: 99. 
Lampropeltis calligaster 21:69; 

44: 11. 
Lampropeltis coccinea 32: 99. 
Lampropeltis doliata 31: 99. 
Lampropeltis doliata 

blanchardi 72: 79. 
Lampropeltis doliatus 31: 99. 



Lampropeltis doliatus collaris 

15: 121. 
Lampropeltis doliatus doliatus 

15:121; 21: 47; 21: 69; 21:85. 
Lampropeltis doliatus gentilis 

21: 47. 
Lampropeltis doliatus 

triangulus 15: 121. 
Lampropeltis elapsoides 31: 99. 
Lampropeltis getula sayi 21: 69; 

21: 85. 
Lampropeltis getulus getulus 

15: 121; 33: 129; 58: 89. 
Lampropeltis getulus 

holbrooki 21: 47. 
Lampropeltis getulus niger 

33: 129. 
Lampropeltis mexicana 35: 226. 
Lampropeltis rhombomaculata 

33: 129; 57: 124. 
Lampropeltis rhombomaculatus 

15: 121. 
Lampropeltis triangulum amaura 

31: 99. 
Lampropeltis triangulum 

gentilis 31: 99. 
Lampropeltis triangulum 

triangulum 31: 99; 33: 129; 

50: 137. 
Lampropholis delicata 98: 221. 
Lampropholis guichenoti 98: 221. 
Lamprosoma annulatum 56: 109. 
Lamprosoma episcopum 56: 109. 
Latastie longicaudata 26: 145. 
Lathrogecko sanctae-martae 29: 

87. 
Lathrogecko xanthostigma 29: 87. 
Leimadophis 35: 219. 
Leimadophis alleni 41: 53. 
Leimadophis andicolus 28: 149. 
Leimadophis parvifrons 

lincolni 44: 89. 
Leimadophis parvifrons 

parvifrons 44: 89. 
Leimadophis parvifrons proteus 

41: 53. 
Leimadophis parvifrons 

tortiganus 44: 89. 
Leimadophis taeniurus 28: 149. 
Leimadophis taeniurus 

bipraeocularis 50: 11. 
Leiocephalus anonymus 97: 827. 
Leiocephalus apertosulcus 97: 

827. 
Leiocephalus astictus 73: 103. 



48 



Leiocephalus barahonensis 41: 

53; 92: 272. 
Leiocephalus beatanus 41: 53; 

44: 89. 
Leiocephalus carinatus 29: 

215; 73: 103; 97: 827. 
Leiocephalus cubensis 72: 

139; 73: 67; 97: 827. 
Leiocephalus cubensis cubensis 

73: 103. 
Leiocephalus cuneus 97: 827. 
Leiocephalus etheridgei 97: 827. 
Leiocephalus jamaicensis 97: 

827. 
Leiocephalus koopmani 81: 23. 
Leiocephalus lunatus 92: 272. 
Leiocephalus macropus 73: 

103; 81: 23. 
Leiocephalus macrops asbolomus 

81: 23. 
Leiocephalus macropus hoplites 

72: 139. 
Leiocephalus macropus 

hyacinthurus 72: 139. 
Leiocephalus macropus 

immaculatus 72: 139. 
Leiocephalus macropus koopmani 

72: 139. 
Leiocephalus macropus macropus 

72: 139; 73: 67. 
Leiocephalus melanochlorus 

29:215; 45:177; 92:272; 97:827. 
Leiocephalus partius 97: 827. 
Leiocephalus personatus 41: 49; 

41: 53; 82: 777; 92: 272. 
Leiocephalus personatus 

barahonensis 45: 177. 
Leiocephalus personatus 

beatanus 45: 177. 
Leiocephalus personatus 

mentalis 45: 177. 
Leiocephalus personatus 

personatus 45: 177. 
Leiocephalus personatus 

scalaris 45: 177. 
Leiocephalus personatus 

semilineatus 45: 177. 
Leiocephalus personatus 

vinculum 45: 177. 
Leiocephalus pratensis 92: 272. 
Leiocephalus raviceps 97: 827. 
Leiocephalus raviceps jaumei 

81: 23. 
Leiocephalus raviceps 

klinikowskii 73: 67; 81: 23. 



Leiocephalus raviceps raviceps 

73: 67; 81: 23. 
Leiocephalus raviceps uzzelli 

73: 67; 81: 23. 
Leiocephalus rhutidira 92: 272. 
Leiocephalus schreibersii 41:53; 

45: 177; 92: 272. 
Leiocephalus semilineatus 41:53; 

94: 827; 92: 272. 
Leiocephalus stictigaster 72: 

139; 73: 67; 81: 23. 
Liocephalus stictigaster 

exotheotus 73: 103. 
Leiocephalus stictigaster 

lucianus 73: 103. 
Leiocephalus srictigaster 

sierrae 73: 103. 
Leiocephalus stictigaster 

stictigaster 73: 103. 
Leiocephalus vinculum 41: 53. 
Leiocephalus vinculum 

altavelensis 92: 272. 
Leiocephalus vinculum 

endomycnus 92: 272. 
Leiocephalus vinculum vinculum 

92: 272. 
Leiocephalus vittatus 73: 67. 
Leiolepisma albertisii 27:201. 
Leiolepisma beccarii 24: 15. 
Leiolepisma cyanogaster 27:201. 
Leiolepisma fuscum 24: 15; 

27: 201. 
Leiolepisma hawaiiensis 52: 1. 
Leiolepisma laterale 21: 165; 

22: 115; 23: 115. 
Leiolepisma noctua 52: 1. 
Leiolepisma peronii 27: 201. 
Leiolepisma pullum 24: 15. 
Leiolopisma 76: 69. 
Leiolopisma acrinasum 98:221. 
Leiolopisma alazon 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma assatum assatum 

52: 187. 
Leiolopisma austrocaledonicum 

98: 221. 
Leiolopisma baudini 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma cherriei 52: 187. 
Leiolopisma chloronoton 98:221. 
Leiolopisma coventryi 98:221. 
Leiolopisma deplanchei 98:221. 
Leiolopisma duperreyi 98:221. 
Leioloposma elegantoides 

lobulus 58: 47. 
Leiolopisma entrecasteauxii 

98: 221. 



49 



Leiolopisma eunica 40: 179. 
Leiolopisma euryotis 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma fallai 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma fasciolare 98:221. 
Leiolopisma gracile 54: 193. 
Leiolopisma gracilicorpus 98:221. 
Leiolopisma grande 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma greeri 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma homalonotum 98:221. 
Leiolopisma infrapunctatum 

98; 221. 
Leiolopisma kohtaoensis 40: 179. 
Leiolopisma laterale 33: 129; 

40: 179; 44: 11. 
Leiolopisma lichenigerum 98:221. 
Leiolopisma lineocellatum 98: 

221. 
Leiolopisma mariae 54: 193. 
Leiolopisma melanostictum 40: 

179. 
Leiolopisma metallicum 98:221. 
Leiolopisma nigriplantare 98: 

221. 
Leiolopisma nigrofasciolatum 

54: 193; 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma noctua 52: 1. 
Leiolopisma novacaledonicum 

98: 221. 
Leiolopisma ocellatum 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma otagense 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma palfreymani 98:221. 
Leiolopisma platynotum 98:221. 
Leiolopisma prehensicauda 58:47. 
Leiolopisma pretiosum 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma pulchellum 

levitoni 76: 69. 
Leiolopisma rupicola 40: 179. 
Leiolopisma semperi 76: 69. 
Leiolopisma spenceri 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma steindachneri 98:221. 
Leiolopisma subvittatum 76: 69. 
Leiolopisma suteri 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma telfairi 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma tricolor 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma trilineatum 98:221. 
Leiolopisma unicolor 53: 119; 

58: 89. 
Leiolopisma variabile 98: 221. 
Leiolopisma zamboangensis 76:69. 
Leiolopisma zia 98: 221. 
Leiopelma archeyi 62: 57. 
Leiopelma hamiltoni 62: 57. 
Leiopelma hochstetteri 62: 57. 
Leiosaurus 34: 139. 
Leiosophis gigas 82: 847. 



Lejosophis 

Lejosophis 

Lemiadophis 

Lemiadophis 

Leptodactyl 

1177; 99 
Leptodactyl 

30: 97; 8 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 

87: 327; 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 

163. 
Leptodactyl 

327; 96: 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 

84: 163; 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 

84:163; 8 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 

96: 270 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 

96: 270. 
Leptodactyl 

84: 163. 
Leptodactyl 

84: 163 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 

87: 327 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 
Leptodactyl 

96: 270. 
Leptodactyl 

96: 560. 
Leptodactyl 

41; 84: 1 
Leptodactyl 

87:81: 87 
Leptodactyl 

163; 87 
Leptodactyl 



bicinctus 82: 847. 
gigas 82: 847. 

melanotus 29: 221. 

stahli 30: 97. 
us 44: 11; 93: 

42. 
us albilabris 28: 71; 
7: 327; 96: 270. 
us amazonicus 96:270. 
us andicola 100: 337. 
us bolivianus 37: 65; 
96: 560. 

us bufonius 87: 327. 
us caliginosus 84: 

us chaquensis 87: 
560. 

us curtus 84: 163. 
us dantasi 96: 560. 
us discodactylus 
87: 81. 

us elenae 96: 270. 
us fragilis 96: 270. 
us furnarius 96:270. 
us fuscus 83: 221; 
7:327; 96:270; B2:199 
us gaigeae 51: 41. 
us geminus 87: 327; 

us goliath 84: 163. 
us gracilis 87: 327; 

us hemidactyloides 

us hylaedactylus 

us inoptatus 30: 97. 
us knudseni 87: 327. 
us labialis 30: 97; 

us labrosus 84: 163. 
us latinasus 87: 327. 
us laurae 96: 270. 
us lineatus 84: 163. 
us longirostris 

us macrosternum 



us marmoratus 51: 

63; 87: 327. 

us melanonotus 84:163; 

327; 96: 560. 
us mystaceus 84: 
327; 96: 270. 
us mystacinus 87:327. 



50 



Leptodactylus "natalensis" 

87: 327. 
Leptodactylus nigrescens 84:163. 
Leptodactylus notoakites 96:270. 
Leptodactylus ocellatus 87: 327; 

96: 560. 
Leptodactylus pentadactylus 

87: 327. 
Leptodactylus pentadactylus 

rubidoides 84: 163. 
Leptodactylus podicipinus 87: 

327; 93: 928; 96: 560. 
Leptodactylus poecilochilus 

96: 270. 
Leptodactylus pulcher 84: 163. 
Leptodactylus pustulatus 96:560. 
Leptodactylus rhodomystax 84: 

163; 96: 560. 
Leptodactylus rhodonotus 84: 163; 

87: 327. 
Leptodactylus riveroi 96: 506. 
Leptodactylus rubido 84: 163. 
Leptodactylus sibilatrix 83: 

221; B2: 199. 
Leptodactylus spixi 96: 270. 
Leptodactylus stenodema 84:163. 
Leptodactylus tuberculosus 

84: 163. 
Leptodactylus validus 51: 147. 
Leptodactylus ventrimaculatus 

84: 163. 
Leptodactylus vividis 96: 560. 
Leptodactylus wagneri 84: 163; 

87: 327; 93: 928; 96: 560. 
Leptodeira 45: 83. 
Leptodeira annulata 29: 221; 

36: 185. 
Leptodeira annulata cussuliris 

72: 79. 
Leptodeira annulata polysticta 

54: 115. 
Leptodeira annulata 

septentrionalus 54: 115. 
Leptodeira annulata taylori 

54: 115. 
Leptodeira frenata 52: 187. 
Leptodeira latifasciata 72: 79. 
Leptodeira maculata 54: 115. 
Leptodeira rhombifera 50: 11. 
Leptodeira septentrional is 

polysticta 72: 79. 
Leptognathus atypicus 36: 185. 
Leptognathus boettgeri 36: 185. 
Leptognathus peruana 36: 185. 
Leptognathus schunkii 36: 185. 



Leptognathus latifasciatus 

36: 185. 
Leptognathus vagus 36: 185. 
Leptomicrurus narduccii 59: 17. 
Leptophis liocercus 29: 221. 
Leptotyphlops albifrons 36: 185; 

58: 29; 87: 167. 
Leptotyphlops asbolepis 98: 204. 
Leptotyphlops bilineata 28: 71; 

79: 255. 
Leptotyphlops bilineatus 98: 204, 
Leptotyphlops calypso 98: 204. 
Leptotyphlops columbi 58: 29; 

98: 204. 
Leptotyphlops dulcis 45: 151; 

90: 209. 
Leptotyphlops emini emini 54:175. 
Leptotyphlops emini pembae 54 : 

175. 
Leptotyphlops goudotii 98: 204. 
Leptotyphlops humilis 45: 151; 

98: 204. 
Leptotyphlops leptepileptus 

98: 204 
Leptotyphlops maximus 45: 151. 
Leptotyphlops munoai 90: 2 09. 
Leptotyphlops myopica 45: 151. 
Leptotyphlops nigricans 98: 204. 
Leptotyphlops phenops 

bakewelli 72: 79. 
Leptotyphlops pyrites 79: 255; 

88: 367; 98: 204. 
Leptotyphlops rubrolineatus 

87: 167. 
Leptotyphlops rufidorsum 58: 29. 
Leptotyphlops rufidorsus 87: 167. 
Leptotyphlops striatula 58: 29. 
Leptotyphlops teaguei 87: 167. 
Leptotyphlops tenella 58: 29. 
Leptotyphlops tenellus 87: 167. 
Leptotyphlops tesselatus 87: 167. 
Leptotyphlops tricolor 87: 167. 
Leuiperus mexicanus 54: 87. 
Leurognathus marmoratus 25: 13 5; 

33: 129; 76: 153. 
Levirana vibicaria 35: 221. 
Lialis burtonii 27: 201. 
Liasis childreni 27: 201. 
Liasis clarki 27: 201. 
Liasis olivaceus 27: 201. 
Limnodynastes 99: 42. 
Linguelaps annulatus 21: 85. 
Liocephalus arenarius 29: 215. 
Liodytes alleni 23: 9. 
Liolaemus boulengeri 34: 139. 



51 



Liolaemus elongatus 34: 139. 
Liolaemus kingii 34: 139. 
Liolaemus lineomaculatus 34:139. 
Liolaemus magellanicus 34: 139. 
Liolaemus pictus 95: 594. 
Liolaemus rothi 34: 139. 
Liolepisma laterale 21: 47; 

21:69; 21:85; 22:129; 23:9. 
Liopelma 40; 123; 62: 57. 
Liopeltis libertatis 23: 169. 
Liopeltis major 23: 169. 
Liopeltis vernalis 15:121; 20:1. 
Liophis 82: 847. 
Liophis almedensis 98: 295. 
Liophis atahuallpae 35: 219. 
Liophis dilepis 98: 295. 
Liophis elapoides diastema 

54: 119. 
Liophis jaegeri 98: 295. 
Liophis maryellenae 98: 295. 
Liophis miliaris 98: 295. 
Liophis poecilogyrus 98: 295. 
Liophis taeniurus 36: 185. 
Liophis tricinctus 54: 119. 
Liophis viridis 98: 295. 
Liotyphlops albirostris 45: 173. 
Liotyphlops anops 50: 11. 
Lipinia noctua 93: 350; 98: 221. 
Lipinia pulchella 76: 69. 
Lipinia semperi 76: 69. 
Lithodytes 28:131; 98:774; 99:42. 
Lithodytes discodactylus 87: 81. 
Lithodytes latrans 21: 53; 

21: 69; 23: 115. 
Lithodytes lineatus 84:163; 87:81 
Lithodytes melanostictus 93: 928. 
Lithodytes ricordii 23: 9. 
Litoria bicolor 91: 965. 
Litoria freycineti 99: 42. 
Litoria infrafrenata militaria 

91: 965. 
Litoria militaria 91: 965. 
Litoria splendida 99: 42. 
Litoria thesaurensis 91: 965. 
Lophosaura goodridgii 27: 9. 
Lophura 24: 15. 
Lophura concinna 25: 191. 
Loxocemus sumichrasti 72: 79. 
Lygodactylus capensis 26: 145. 
Lygodactylus capensis 

schef fieri 48: 195. 
Lygodactylus fischeri 

scheffleri 48: 195. 
Lygodactylus grotei pakenhami 

54: 175. 



195, 



195 



195, 



Lygodactylus ocellatus 48:195, 
Lygodactylus picturatus 

guttural is 26: 145; 28: 
Lygodactylus picturatus 

mombasicus 48: 195. 
Lygodactylus picturatus 

picturatus 26: 145; 48: 
Lygodactylus picturatus 

sudanensis 48: 195. 
Lygodactylus picturatus 

ukerewensis 48: 195. 
Lygodactylus somalicus 

annectens 48: 195. 
Lygodactylus somalicus 

somalicus 48: 195. 
Lygodactylus thomensis 48: 
Lygophus lineatus B2 : 199. 
Lygosoma annamiticum 40: 179. 
Lygosoma anolis 58: 47. 
Lygosoma arborens 80: 69. 
Lygosoma assata taylori 74: 37. 
Lygosoma assatum 54: 181. 
Lygosoma auriculatum 76: 69. 
Lygosoma cherriei cherriei 

54: 181. 
Lygosoma cherriei stuarti 54:181, 
Lygosoma decipiens 80: 69. 
Lygosoma diwata 80: 69. 
Lygosoma elegans 58: 47. 
Lygosoma elegantoides lobulus 

58: 47. 
Lygosoma flavipes 
Lygosoma gracile 
Lygosoma herberti 
, Lygosoma helenae 
Lygosoma infralineolatum 76: 
Lygosoma jagori 80: 69. 
Lygosoma laterale 15:121; Bl: 1. 
Lygosoma lednickyi 80: 69. 
Lygosoma mariae 54: 193. 
Lygosoma mindanensis 80: 69. 
Lygosoma nigrofasciolatum 54:193 
Lygosoma nitens 76: 69. 
Lygosoma parkeri 58: 47. 
Lygosoma prehensicauda 58: 47. 
Lygosoma pulchellum 58: 47. 
Lygosoma pulchellum levitoni 

76: 69. 
Lygosoma pulchellum pulchellum 

76: 69. 
Lygosoma pulchellum taylori 

76: 69. 
Lygosoma quadrivitatum 76: 76. 
Lygosoma quadrivitatum 

infralineolatum 76: 69. 



58: 
54: 

40: 
40: 



47. 
193. 

179 
179. 



69. 



52 



Lygosoma quadrivitatum 
quadrivitatum 76: 69. 
Lygosoma relictum 76: 69. 
Lygosoma semperi 76: 69. 
Lygosoma slevini 54: 193. 
Lygosoma steerei 80: 69. 
Lygosoma subvittatum 76: 69. 
Lygosoma surdum 76: 69. 
Lygosoma variegatum 80: 69. 
Lygosoma zamboangensis 76: 69. 
Lysoptychus lateralis 17: 17. 

Mabuya aenea 29: 221. 
Mabuya agilis 29: 215; 53:119. 
Mabuya aurata 29: 221. 
Mabuya aurata af finis 83: 477. 
Mabuya brachypoda 74: 37. 
Mabuya cepedei 29: 215. 
Mabuya mabouya mabouya 51: 147. 
Mabuya maboyua sloanei 90: 985. 
Mabuya maculilabris albotaenia 

albotaeniata 54: 175. 
Mabuya quinquetaeniata 26: 14 5. 
Mabuya sloanii 29: 215. 
Macroclemys temminckii 99: 472. 
Magnadigita adspersa 65: 1. 
Magnadigita cerroensis 75: 71. 
Magnadigita cuchumantana 65: 1. 
Magnadigita dunni 65: 1. 
Magnadigita engelhardti 65: 1. 
Magnadigita flavimembris 65: 1. 
Magnadigita franklini 65: 1. 
Magnadigita helmrichi 65: 1. 
Magnadigita hypacra 75: 71. 
Magnadigita lincolni 65: 1. 
Magnadigita macrinii 65: 1. 
Magnadigita marmorea 75: 71. 
Magnadigita morio 65: 1. 
Magnadigita nigrescens 75: 71. 
Magnadigita nigroflavescens 65:1. 
Magnadigita omniumsanctorum 65:1, 
Magnadigita pesrubra 75: 71. 
Magnadigita robusta 65:1; 75:71. 
Magnadigita rostrada 65: 1. 
Magnadigita subpalmata 65: 1; 

75: 71. 
Magnadigita torresi 75: 71. 
Malaclemmys centrata 15: 121; 

Bl: 1. 
Malaclemmys littoralis 

rhizophoarum 68: 157. 
Malaclemmys macrospilota 23: 9. 
Malaclemys geographica 20: 1. 
Malaclemys pseudo-geographica 

20: 1. 



Malaclemys terrapin 99: 472. 
Malaclemys terrapin centrata 

68: 157. 
Malaclemys terrapin 

macrospilota 68: 157. 
Malaclemys terrapin 

rhizophorarum 68: 157. 
Malaclemys terrapin tequesta 

68: 157. 
Malacochersus tornieri 96: 567. 
Manculus 50: 141. 
Manolepis putnami 72: 79. 
Manouria chiayukuanensis 96: 567 
Manouria ovalis 96: 567. 
Manouria sharanensis 96: 567. 
Manouria sichuanensis 96: 567. 
Manouria tsiuyunensis 96: 567. 
Manouria yushensis 96: 567. 
Masticophis flagellum cingulum 

67: 247. 
Masticophis flagellum 

flavigularis 67: 247. 
Masticophis flagellum lineatus 

72: 79. 
Masticophis flagellum piceus 

67: 247. 
Mastigodryas boddaerti dunni 

86: 231. 
Mastigodryas bruesi 86: 231. 
Mastigodryas pleei 86: 231. 
Maticora bivirgata bivirgata 

57: 105. 
Maticora bivirgata tetrataenia 

57: 105. 
Maticora intestinalis 

bilineata 57: IV; 57: 105. 
Maticora intestinalis everetti 

57: 105. 
Maticora intestinalis 

immaculata 57: 105. 
Maticora intestinalis 

intestinalis 57: IV; 57: 105. 
Maticora intestinalis 

nigrotaeniata 57: 105. 
Maticora philippina 57: 105. 
Maticora philippinus 57: 105. 
Megaelosia 98: 774. 
Megaelosia goeldi 99: 100. 
Megophrys boettgeri 39: 53. 
Megophrys minor 39: 53. 
Melanochelys trijuga 15: 235. 
Melanosaurus maximus 86: 105. 
Micrixalus borealis 55: 71. 
Micrixalus dimunitiva 55: 71. 
Micrixalus fuscus 55: 71. 



53 



Micrixalus herrei 55: 71. 
Micrixalus opistborhodus 55: 71, 
Micrixalus sarasinorum 55: 71. 
Micrixalus saxicola 55: 71. 
Micrixalus silvaticus 55: 71. 
Micrixalus tenasserimensis 

55: 71. 
Micrixalus torrentis 55: 71. 
Microbatrachylus lineatissimus 

54: 87. 
Microbatrachylus oaxacae 54: 87, 
Microgecko helenae 83: 477. 
Microhyla berdmorei 40: 179. 
Microhyla fissipes 14: 189; 

51: 159. 
Microhyla leucostigma 51: 191. 
Microhyla malcolmi 40: 179. 
Microhyla okinavensis 14: 189; 

51: 159. 
Microhyla ornata 51: 159. 
Microhyla undulata 51: 159. 
Micropholis stowii 98: 1028. 
Microps unicolor 23: 165. 
Micrurus 49: 51. 
Micrurus af finis af finis 55: 63. 
Micrurus annellatus 59: 17. 
Micrurus corallinus 36: 185. 
Micrurus fitzingeri fitzingeri 

55: 63. 
Micrurus fitzingeri 

microgalbineus 55: 63. 
Micrurus fulvius tenere 55: 63. 
Micrurus langsdorffii 59: 17. 
Micrurus nigrocinctus browni 

72: 79. 
Molge pyrrhogaster ensicauda 

51: 159. 
Molge pyrrhogastra 

ensicaudatus 51: 159. 
Monopeltis 59: 73. 
Monoplocus 42: 153. 

Nannobatrachus anamollaiensis 

55: 49. 
Nannobatrachus beddomii 55: 49. 
Nannobatrachus kempholeyensis 

55: 49. 
Nannophrys 55: 49. 
Nanorana 55: 49. 
Natrix 53: 125. 
Natrix bisecta 15: 121.; Bl: 1. 
Natrix boulengeri 50: 125. 
Natrix compressicauda 23: 9. 
Natrix craspedogaster 50: 125. 
Natrix erythrogaster 64: 60. 



Natrix erythrogaster alta 76: 

169. 
Natrix erythrogaster bogerti 

76: 169. 
Natrix erythrogaster 

transversa 76: 169. 
Natrix fasciata 23: 9. 
Natrix fasciata erythrogaster 

22: 129. 
Natrix fasciata sipedon 20: 1. 
Natrix inas 50: 125. 
Natrix khasiensis gilhodesi 

50: 125. 
Natrix kirklandi 20: 1. 
Natrix leberis 20: 1. 
Natrix inairii 23: 89. 
Natrix rhombifera 20: 1. 
Natrix septemvittata 33: 129; 

59: 137. 
Natrix sipedon 15: 121; 22: 

129; 28: 61; 33: 129. 
Natrix sipedon sipedon 50: 137. 
Natrix taxispilota 22: 129. 
Necrosaurus 86: 105. 
Nectes obscurus 16: 51. 
Nectes subasper 17: 51. 
Nectophryne afra 51: 191. 
Nectophryne batesi 51: 191. 
Nectophryne gardineri 51: 191. 
Nectophryne misera 51: 191. 
Nectophryne parvipalmata 51: 191, 
Nectophryne picturata 51: 191. 
Nectophryne sundana 51: 191. 
Nectophryne werthi 51: 191. 
Nectophrynoides tornieri 51: 191. 
Necturus alabamensis 51: 14 3. 
Necturus beyeri 51: 143. 
Necturus louisianensis 51: 14 3. 
Necturus maculatus 20: 1. 
Necturus maculosus 51: 143. 
Necturus maculosus maculosus 

76: 159. 
Neoseps 76: 153. 
Niceforonia montium 98: 774. 
Niceforonia wettsteini 98: 774. 
Nicoria 15: 235. 
Ninia sebae sebae 62: 165. 
Nordenosaurus 86: 105. 
Nordenosaurus magnus 86: 105. 
Nyctibatrachus major 55: 49. 
Nyctimantis 52: 187. 
Nyctimantis papua 29: 85. 
Nyctimantis rugiceps 29: 85. 
Nyctimystes 29: 85. 
Nyctimystes milneana 58: 53. 



54 



Nyctimystes montana 58: 53. 
Nyctimystes papua 29:85; 58:53. 
Nyctimystes semipalmata 58: 53. 



Odontophrynus 

Oedipina 

Oedipina 

Oedipina 

Oedipina 

Oedipina 

Oedipina 

Oedipina 

Oedipina 

Oedipus 

Oedipus 

Oedipus 

Oedipus 

Oedipus 

Oedipus 

Oedipus 

Oedipus 

Oedipus 

Oedipus 

Oedipus 

Oedipus 

Oedipus 



105 



80 
75: 71. 
alforoi 34 
ignea 65: 1. 
poelzi 89: 289 
syndactyla 61: 
taylori 65: 1. 
uniformis 34: 



14 3; 65: 



177 



143 



vermicularis 
ahli 76: 289. 
barbouri 49: 43 
chiropterus 49: 
f lavimembris 67 
franklini 67: 159. 
helmrichi 55: 159. 
lignicolor 76: 289 
picadoi 61: 177. 



34: 143 



43. 
159 



61: 

17. 

187 
143. 

5. 



17 



rex 34: 143; 
rostralis 61: 
rufescens 52: 
sulcatus 34: 
townsendi 35: 
Oeidozuga laevis laevis 80: 65, 
Oligodon analepticos 82: 763. 
Oligodon brevicauda 82: 768. 
Oligodon cyclurus 82: 763. 
Oligosoma 98: 221. 
Ololygon catharinae 

bocainensis 93: 655. 
Ololygon catharinae brieni 

93:655. 
Ololygon catharinae 

obtriangula 93: 655. 
Ololygon catharinae simplex 

93: 655. 
Ololygon catharinae 

trapicheiroi 93: 655. 
Ololygon humilis 93: 655. 
Ololygon opalina 93: 655. 



Ololygon rubra 96 
Onychodactylus 3 
Opheodrys aestivus 
Opheodrys vernal is 

76: 159. 
Opheodrys vernalis vernalis 

76: 305. 
Opheosaurus ventral is 

21: 69. 
Ophibolus coccineus 23: 9 
Ophibolus gentilis 31: 99 
Ophibolus getulus 22: 129 



59 

123. 

15: 121. 
blanchardi 



21: 47 



Ophibolus getulus sayi 23: 9. 
Ophibolus rhombomaculatus 15: 36; 

15: 90. 
Ophibolus triangulum mexicanus 

35: 226. 
Ophisaurus harti 32: 142. 
Ophisaurus ventral is 20: 1; 

21: 69; 22: 129; 23: 9; 53: 

119. 
Opophisops elegans elegans 

80: 477. 
Ophryoessoides tridescens 80: 

105. 
Opisthotropis typica 51: 43. 
Oreocalamus hanitschi 51: 43. 
Oreophis boulengeri 35: 226. 
Oreophryne annulata 80: 65. 
Oreophryne brachypus 91: 965. 
Oreophryne jef fersoniana 80: 65. 
Oreophryne nana 80: 65. 
Oreophryne rookmaakeri 80: 
Oreophryne visaya 80: 65. 
Oreophryne variabilis 80: 
Oreophryne zimmeri 80: 65. 
Osceola 31: 99. 

Osceola doliata doliata 21: 69. 
Osceola doliata triangula 20: 1. 
Osteocephalus taurinus 91: 123. 
Osteopilus brunneus 90: 194. 
Oxybelis acuminatus 29: 221; 

36: 185. 
Oxybelis aeneus auratus 72: 79. 
Oxyrhina varians 53: 125. 
Oxyrhopus petola 59: 17. 



65. 



65, 



Paludicola bufonina 34: 1 
Paludicola illotus 35: 1 
Paludicola imitator 34: 
Paracrinia haswelli 95: 
Pedostibes altitudinus 51 
Pedostibes everetti 51: 
Pedostibes hosii 51: 191 
Pedostibes kempi 51: 191 
Pedostibes tuberculosus 5 
Parvimolge richardi 61: 
Pelamis platurus B2:199; 
Pelobius 99: 42. 
Pelodryas caeruleus 99: 
Pelodryas militarius 91: 
Pelomedusa subrufa 99: 4 
Pelophryne 51: 191. 
Pelophryne albotaeniata 5 
Pelophryne brevipes 51: 
Pelophryne guentheri 51: 
Pelophryne lighti 51: 19 



39. 

11. 
157. 
423. 
: 191. 
191. 



1:191. 

177. 

B2:267 

42. 

965. 
72. 

1:191. 
191. 

191. 
1. 



55 



Pelophryne macrotis 51: 191. 
Pelophryne maculata 51: 191. 
Pelophryne misera 51: 191. 
Pelophryne signata 51: 191. 
Pelusios castaneus castanoides 

99: 472. 
Pelusios nigricans 15: 235. 
Pelusuos subniger 99: 472. 
Perochirus 54: 195. 
Petalognathus 36: 185. 
Petalognathus nebulatus 29: 221. 
Phaeognathus hubrichti 76: 153. 
Phelsuma abbotti abotti B8 : 101. 
Phelsuma abbotti sumptio B8 : 101. 
Phelsuma astriata astriata 

B8: 101. 
Phelsuma astriata semicarinata 

B8: 101. 
Phelsuma laticauda B8 : 101. 
Phelsuma madagascariensis 

parkeri 54: 17 5. 
Phelsuma sundbergi longinsulae 

B8: 101. 
Phelsuma sundbergi sundbergi 

B8: 101. 
Philautus doriae 40: 179. 
Philautus eximius 53: 105. 
Philautus femoralis 53: 105. 
Philautus hansenae 40: 179. 
Philautus nongkhorensis 40: 179. 
Philautus palpebralis 40: 179. 
Philautus variabilis 53: 105. 
Phrynella pollicaris 51: 191. 
Phryniscus 23: 165. 
Phrynobatrachus acridoides 

54: 175. 
Phrynobatrachus natalensis 

26: 145. 
Phrynobatrachus pakenhami 54:175. 
Phrynohyas venulosa 93: 153. 
Phrynops geoffroana 22: 12 5. 
Phrynops hilarii 22: 125. 
Phrynops rufipes 22: 125. 
Phrynops tuberosa 22: 125. 
Phrynops wagleri 22: 125. 
Phrynopus juninensis 98: 774. 
Phrynopus montium 98: 774. 
Phrynopus nanus 90: 60. 
Phrynopus peruanus 98: 774. 
Phrynopus wettsteini 98: 774. 
Phrynosoma 53: 119. 
Phrynosoma asio 74: 37. 
Phrynosoma brevicornis 45: 73. 
Phrynosoma cornutum 21: 47; 

21: 69; 21: 165; 45: 73. 



Phrynosoma douglassii 

douglassii 53: 125. 
Phrynosoma douglassii 

hernandesi 21: 165; 53: 125. 
Phrynosoma orbiculare alticola 

66: 27. 
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii 

66: 27. 
Phrynosoma orbiculare 

orbiculare 53: 125; 66: 27. 
Phrynosoma platyrhinos 35: 1. 
Phrynosoma taurus 74: 37. 
Phyllobates 84: 147; 93: 1177; 

95: 557; 99: 42; 99: 214. 
Phyllobates alagoanus 84: 147. 
Phyllobates alboguttatus 84: 147 
Phyllobates anthonyi 84: 147. 
Phyllobates aurotaenia 94: 67. 
Phyllobates beatriciae 34: 157. 
Phyllobates bromelicola 84: 147. 
Phyllobates capixaba 84: 147. 
Phyllobates carioca 84: 147. 
Phyllobates inf raguttatus 84:147 
Phyllobates intermedius 84: 147. 
Phyllobates kingsburyi 84: 147. 
Phyllobates latinasus 84: 147. 
Phyllobates lugubris 34: 157. 
Phyllobates mandelorum 84: 147. 
Phyllobates marchesianus 84: 147 
Phyllobates mertensi 84: 147. 
Phyllobates nubicola 55: 71. 
Phyllobates palmatus 84: 147. 
Phyllobates peruvianus 84: 147. 
Phyllobates pratti 84: 147. 
Phyllobates ridens 94: 413. 
Phyllobates riocosangae 84: 147. 
Phyllobates sylvatica 84: 147. 
Phyllobates taeniatus 84: 147. 
Phyllobates talamancae 34: 157. 
Phyllobates tatinasus 37: 65. 
Phyllobates terribilis 94: 67. 
Phyllobates trilineatus 84: 147. 
Phyllobates trinitatus 84: 147. 
Phyllobates truncatus 34: 157. 
Phyllobates vertebralis 84: 147. 
Phyllobates vittatus 94: 67. 
Phyllodactylus bordai 74: 37. 
Phyllodactylus delcampi 74: 37. 
Phyllodactylus insularis 81: 419, 
Phyllodactylus lanei 74: 37. 
Phyllodactylus magnus 74: 37. 
Phyllodactylus palmeus 81: 419. 
Phyllodactylus tuberculosus 81: 

419. 
Phyllodromus pulchellum 84: 147. 



56 



Phyllodromus vertebralis 84:147. 
Phyllomedusa boliviana 96: 59. 
Phyllomedusa duellmani 96: 59. 
Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis 

93: 153; 96: 59. 
Phyllomedusa pailona 96: 59. 
Phyllomedusa sauvagii 93: 153. 
Phyllomedusa tarsius 96: 59. 
Phyllomedusa trinitatis 96: 59. 
Phyllomedusa venusta 93: 1177; 

96: 59. 
Phyllorhynchus arenicola 67: 69. 
Phyllorhynchus browni browni 

67: 69. 
Phyllorhynchus browni fortitus 

67: 69. 
Phyllorhynchus browni lucidus 

67: 69. 
Phyllorhynchus decurtatus 

decurtatus 67: 69. 
Phyllorhynchus decurtatus 

norrisi 67: 69. 
Phyllorhynchus decurtatus 

nubilis 67: 69. 
Phyllorhynchus decurtatus 

perkinsi 67: 69. 
Phymaturus flagellifer 34: 139. 
Phymaturus palluma 34: 139. 
Phymaturus patagonicus 34: 139. 
Phymaturus spurcus 34: 139. 
Physalaemus 93: 1177. 
Physalaemus cuvieri 98: 657. 
Physalaemus franciscae 98: 657. 
Physalaemus maculiventris 98:657 
Physalaemus nanus 98: 657. 
Physalaemus obtectus 98: 657. 
Physalaemus olfersi 98: 657. 
Physalaemus signiferus 98: 657. 
Physignathus cochinchinensis 

25: 191. 
Physignathus cocincinus 

caudicinctus 25: 191. 
Physignathus cocincinus 

cocincinus 25: 191. 
Physignathus cocincinus 

mentager 25: 191. 
Physignathus mentager 25: 191. 
Pipa pipa 44: 11. 
Pithecopus boliviana 96: 59. 
Pithecopus pailonus 96: 59. 
Pituophis deppei gibsoni 67: 159, 
Pituophis deppei lineaticollis 

67: 159; 72: 79. 
Pituophis melanoleucus 

melanoleucus 58: 89. 



Pituophis sayi sayi 44: 11. 
Pityophis catenifer sayi 21: 

47; 21: 69. 
Pityophis melanoleucus 23: 9. 
Platydactylus americana 81: 123. 
Platydactylus americanus 

cubanus 81: 123. 
Platydactylus milbertii 81: 123. 
Platymantis 99: 42. 
Platymantis acrochordus 81: 69. 
Platymantis aculeodactylus 81:69 
Platymantis akari thymus 81: 69; 

91: 965. 
Platymantis boulengeri 81: 69; 

91: 965. 
Platymantis cornutus 95: 386. 
Platymantis corrugatus 95: 386. 
Platymantis corrugatus 

papuensis 81: 69. 
Platymantis dorsalis 81: 69; 

95: 386. 
Platymantis gilliardi 81: 69; 

91: 965. 
Platymantis guentheri 95: 386. 
Platymantis hazelae 95: 386. 
Platymantis ingeri 95: 386. 
Platymantis insulatus 95: 386. 
Platymantis lawtoni 95: 386. 
Platymantis levigatus 95: 386. 
Platymantis macroceles 91: 965. 
Platymantis macrops 81: 69. 
Platymantis magnus 91: 9 65. 
Platymantis meyersi 81: 69. 
Platymantis mimicus 81: 69; 

91: 965. 
Platymantis nexipus 91: 965. 
Platymantis nova-britannea 

81: 69. 
Platymantis papuensis 

papuensis 81: 69. 
Platymantis papuensis schmidti 

81: 69; 91: 965. 
Platymantis papuensis weberi 

81: 69. 
Platymantis parkeri 81: 69. 
Platymantis pelewensis 81: 69. 
Platymantis polillensis 95: 386. 
Platymantis rhipiphalcus 81: 69; 

91: 965. 
Platymantis solomonis 81: 69; 

91: 965. 
Platymantis spelaeus 95: 386. 
Platymantis subterrestris 95:386. 
Platymantis vitianus 91: 965. 
Platymantis weberi 81: 69. 



57 



Platypholis altamirani 49: 55. 
Platypholis heterolepis 57: 1. 
Platyplacopus kuehnei 

carinatus 51: 127. 
Platyplacopus kuehnei kuehnei 

51: 127. 
Platyplectrurus madurensis 55: 

49. 
Platysternon megacephalum 

megacephalum 100: 624. 
Platysternon megacephalum 

peguense 100: 624. 
Platysternon megacephalum 

rogeli 100: 624. 
Platysternon megacephalum 

shiui 100: 624. 
Platysternon megacephalum 

trisernalis 100: 624. 
Platythyra flavescens 70: 201. 
Plectrohyla 64: 33. 
Plectrohyla avia 65: 1. 
Plectrohyla cotzicensis 61: 17; 

65: 1. 
Plectrohyla guatemalensis 61: 17; 

65: 1. 
Plectrohyla sagorum 65: 1. 
Plectrohyta cotzicensis 61: 17. 
Plectromantis andicola 100: 337. 
Plectromantis wagneri 84: 163. 
Plestiodon fasciatus 33: 129. 
Plethodon 40: 123. 
Plethodon aeneus 25: 135. 
Plethodon cinereus 15: 121; 

33: 129; 50: 137. 
Plethodon cinereus cineurus 

20:1; 59:157; 62:135; 69:93. 
Plethodon cinereus dorsalis 20:1. 
Plethodon cinereus 

erythronotus 20: 1. 
Plethodon dunni 47: 169. 
Plethodon erythronatus 29: 73. 
Plethodon erythronotus 25: 13 5. 
Plethodon glutinosus 15: 121; 

20: 1; 21: 53; 21: 85; 22: 

129; 23: 9; 25: 135; 43: 55; 

50: 137; 61: 127. 
Plethodon glutinosus 

glutinosus 33: 129; 59: 157. 
Plethodon hardii 54: 77. 
Plethodon huldae 62: 135. 
Plethodon idahoensis 54: 77. 
Plethodon iecanus 61: 127. 
Plethodon intermedius 47: 169. 
Plethodon jordani 25: 135; 

33: 129. 



Plethodon metcalfi 25: 13 5; 

33: 129. 
Plethodon nettingi 59: 157; 

62: 135. 
Plethodon richmondi 62: 135. 
Plethodon shermani 25: 135; 

33: 129. 
Plethodon vehiculus 47: 169. 
Plethodon wehrlei 59: 157; 

62: 135. 
Plethodon welleri 62: 135. 
Plethodon yonahlossee 33: 129. 
Pleurodema 93: 1177. 
Pleurodema brachyops B2 : 199. 
Pliocercus aegualis 55: 159. 
Pliocercus andrewsi 55: 159. 
Pliocercus bicolor 54: 119; 

55: 159. 
Pliocercus dimidiatus 54: 119. 
Pliocercus elapoides aegualis 

54: 119. 
Pliocercus elapoides diastemus 

54: 119; 55: 159. 
Pliocercus elapoides elapoides 

54: 119; 55: 159. 
Pliocercus elapoides 

laticollaris 54: 119. 
Pliocercus elapoides schmidti 

55: 159. 
Pliocercus elapoides 

semicinctus 55: 159. 
Pliocercus euryzonus 54: 119. 
Polychrus marmoratus 29: 221. 
Polypedates anodon 21: 189. 
Polypedates edentulus 21: 189. 
Polypedates moltrechti 51: 159. 
Polypedates robustus 51: 159. 
Polypedates schlegelii owstoni 

51: 159. 
Pomatops 23: 89. 
Pomatops valvifera 23: 89. 
Procinura aemula 56: 109. 
Prostherapis 84: 147. 
Prostherapis boulengeri 22: 89. 
Prostherapis brunneus 84: 147. 
Prostherapis dunni 84: 147. 
Prostherapis femoralis 22: 87. 
Prostherapis festae 84: 147. 
Prostherapis herminae 84: 147. 
Prostherapis inguinalis 84: 147. 
Prostherapis neblina 84: 147. 
Prostherapis riveroi 84: 147. 
Prostherapis shrevei 84: 147. 
Prostherapis subpunctatus 84:147 
Prostherapis variabilis 84: 147. 



58 



Prostherapis vertebralis 84:147. 
Prostherapsis whimperi 84: 147. 
Prostheraspis femoralis 22: 89. 
Protestudo 96: 567. 
Psammobates geometricus B8 : 108. 
Psammophis brevirostris 45: 83. 
Psammophis sibilans 26: 145. 
Pseudacris clarki 74: 157. 
Pseudacris feriarum 31: 51. 
Pseudacris nigrita 74: 157. 
Pseudacris nigrita canadensis 

69: 169. 
Pseudacris nigrita feriarum 

50: 137; 68: 155; 69: 169. 
Pseudacris nigrita maculata 

69: 169. 
Pseudacris nigrita nigrita 

48: 107. 
Pseudacris nigrita 

septentrionalis 69: 169; 

76: 159. 
Pseudacris nigrita triseriata 

68: 155; 69: 169; 76: 159. 
Pseudacris nigritus verrucosa 

48: 107. 
Pseudacris ocularis 48: 107. 
Pseudacris septentrionalis 

69: 169. 
Pseudacris streckeri 74: 157. 
Pseudemoia 98: 221. 
Pseudemys alabamensis 99: 472. 
Pseudemys concinna 21: 69; 21: 

85; 33: 129; 93: 339; Bl: 1. 
Pseudemys concinna hoyi 51: 173. 
Pseudemys elegans 21: 47; 21: 69; 

33: 129. 
Pseudemys floridana 22: 129; 

93: 339. 
Pseudemys floridana concinna 

50: 137. 
Pseudemys mobilensis 21: 69. 
Pseudemys nelsoni 93: 339. 
Pseudemys ornata 51: 173. 
Pseudemys rubriventris 15: 

121; 50: 137; 57: 124. 
Pseudemys rubriventris 

alabamensis 51: 173. 
Pseudemys scripta 22: 129; 

93: 339. 
Pseudemys texana 21: 47; 21: 

69; 51: 173. 
Pseudis paradoxus 93: 153. 
Pseudoboa neuwiedii 50: 11. 
Pseudobranchus striatus 23: 9. 
Pseudoeurycea barbouri 67: 159. 



Pseudoeurycea exspectata 67: 159, 
Pseudoeurycea gadovii 67: 159. 
Pseudoeurycea goebeli 67: 159. 
Pseudoeurycea leprosa 67: 159. 
Pseudoeurycea rex 67: 159. 
Pseudoeurycea smithi 67 : 159 . 
Pseudof icimia 56: 109. 
Pseudopareas atypicus 36: 185. 
Pseudopareas spilogaster 36: 185 
Pseudopareas vagrans 36: 185. 
Pseudopareas vagus 36: 185. 
Pseudotriton montanus 33: 129. 
Pseudotriton ruber nitidus 

33: 129. 
Pseudotriton ruber ruber 33: 

129; 50: 137. 
Pseudotriton ruber schencki 

33: 129. 
Pseudotriton schencki 33: 129. 
Pseudoxenodon bambusicola 49:117, 
Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti 

49: 117. 
Pseudoxenodon popei 49: 117. 
Pternohyla 52: 187. 
Pternohyla fodiens 55: 151. 
Pterophryne 95: 42 3. 
Pterophrynus 95: 423. 
Ptychemys concinna 51: 173. 
Ptychemys hoyi 51: 17 3. 
Ptychemys mobiliensis 51: 173. 
Ptychohyla adipoventris 67: 159. 
Ptychohyla alleei 
Ptychohyla bogerti 67: 159. 
Ptychohyla schmidtorum 67: 159. 
Ptychohyla uranachroa 67: 159. 
Ptychozoon homalocephalum 15: 37. 
Ptychozoon horsfieldii 15: 37. 
Ptychozoon kuhii 15: 37. 
Pyxicephalus 55: 49. 
Pyxis 96: 567. 

Ramphiophis multimaculatus 
35: 229. 

Rana 48: 107; 93: 153. 
Rana adenopleura 51: 159. 
Rana aesopus 23: 9; 37: 141; 

48: 79; 69: 135. 
Rana afghana 39: 53. 
Rana agilis 37: 73. 
Rana amurensis 37: 73. 
Rana areolata 69: 135. 
Rana areolata aesopus 48: 79. 
Rana areolata areolata 21: 53. 
Rana aurora 62: 57. 
Rana aurora draytonii 43: 55. 



59 



43: 55. 

43: 55. 

43: 55. 
54: 197. 
965. 



35: 



90 



129, 
20: 



55. 
47; 
23: 
l; 



Rana beddomii 55: 49; 55: 71, 

Rana boulengeri 21: 189. 

Rana boylii boylii 

Rana boylii muscosa 

Rana boylii sierrae 

Rana brevipalmatus 

Rana bufoniformis 91: 

Rana burnsi 35: 107. 

Rana caerulea 99: 42. 

Rana caerulea punctata 

221. 
Rana canagica 43: 55. 
Rana cancrivora 54: 197; 

669. 
Rana cancrivora cancrivora 

80: 65. 
Rana cantabrigensis 43: 55; 

76: 159. 
Rana capito 48: 79. 
Rana capito capito 69: 135. 
Rana capito sevosa 69: 135. 
Rana capito stertens 69: 135 
Rana catesbeiana 15: 121; 21 

85; 33: 129; 37: 141; 43 
Rana catesbiana 20: 1; 21: 

21: 53; 21: 69; 22: 
Rana clamata 15: 121 

22: 129. 
Rana clamitans 21: 85 

37: 141; 50: 137; 69: 93. 
Rana clamitans melanota 76: 159 
Rana corrugata 54: 197. 
Rana cyanophlyctis 54: 197. 
Rana dalmatina 37: 73. 
Rana diuata 90: 669. 
Rana doriae 54: 197. 
Rana erythraea 90: 669. 
Rana feae 21: 189. 
Rana galamensis 54: 197. 
Rana gibbosa 23: 165. 
Rana godmani 35: 221. 
Rana gracilipes 51: 159. 
Rana gracilis 51: 159. 
Rana grayi 54: 197. 
Rana grunniens 54: 197. 
Rana grylio 37: 141. 
Rana guentheri 51: 159. 
Rana halecina 44: 11. 
Rana heckscheri 37: 141. 
Rana himalayana 39: 53. 
Rana holsti 21: 189. 
Rana japonica ornativentris 

37: 73. 
Rana jugans 39: 53. 
Rana kandiyohi 35: 107. 



9. 



33: 129 



Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 

197 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 

105 
Rana 

1: 

153 
Rana 
Rana 

91: 
Rana 

21: 

129 

44: 

117 
Rana 
Rana 

20: 
Rana 

69: 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 

26: 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 

37: 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 
Rana 

21: 
Rana 



669. 



90 
197 



669 



kuhlii 54: 197; 90: 669. 
leytensis 80: 65; 90: 669. 
liebigii 21: 189. 
limnocharis 51: 159; 54: 
; 90: 669. 
longicrus 37: 73. 
macrodon 54: 197; 90 
magna 90: 664. 
magna magna 80: 65. 
martensi 37: 73. 
mascareniensis 26: 145 
microdisca 54: 197 
microtympanum 54 : 
modesta 54: 197. 
mystacea 96: 270. 
namiyei 14: 189. 
narina 14: 189. 
nicobarensis 90: 669 
occipitalis 54: 197. 
ocellata 44: 11. 
ornativentris 3 7 
ovalis 23: 165. 
palmipes 35: 221 

84: 163. 
palustris 15: 121; 20 
33: 129; 50: 137; 76: 
; 76: 159. 
papua 27: 201. 
papua novaebritanniae 
965. 



73. 



80: 



121; 21: 47; 
22: 115; 22: 
53; 35: 107; 
53: 125; 93: 



pipiens 15: 

69; 21: 85 
; 23: 9 ; 26: 

11; 50: 43; 
7. 

pipiens austricola 21: 53. 
pipiens brachycephala 

1. 
pipiens pipiens 20: 1; 

93; 76: 159. 
pipiens sphenocephala 20: 1 
pretiosa 62: 57. 
pretiosa luteiventris 

53; 43: 55. 
pustulosa 35: 221. 
pyxicephalus 54: 197. 
rugata 81: 69. 
septentrionalis 35: 107; 

141; 69: 93; 76: 159. 
sevosa 69: 135. 
signata 90: 669. 
signata grandicula 80: 65. 
sphenocephala 21: 53; 

69; 33: 129. 
subaspera 21: 189. 



60 



Rana swinhoana 51: 159. 
Rana sylvatica 15: 121; 20: 

1: 33: 129; 35: 107; 50: 

137; 76: 159. 
Rana sylvatica cantabrigensis 

69: 93; 76: 159. 
Rana sylvatica sylvatica 69: 93. 
Rana temporaria 37: 73. 
Rana temporaria japonica 37: 73. 
Rana temporaria ornativentris 

37: 73. 
Rana temporalis 55: 49. 
Rana tenasserimensis 55: 71. 
Rana tigerina 54: 197. 
Rana tsushimensis 37: 73. 
Rana typhonia 96: 270. 
Rana verrucosa 55: 49. 
Rana vibicaria 35: 221. 
Rana virescens austricola 21: 69 
Rana virescens brachycephala 

21: 69. 
Rana virgatipes 22: 129; 37: 

141; 64: 59. 
Rana Virginia 44: 11. 
Rana vittigera 51: 159. 
Rana woodworthi 90: 669. 
Ranidella riparia 95: 423. 
Ranidella signifera 95: 423. 
Ranidella tasmaniensis 95: 423. 
Ranidens 30: 123. 
Ranodon kessleri 30: 123. 
Ranodon olympicus 30: 123. 
Ranodon sibiricus 30: 123. 
Ranula chrysoprasina 35: 221. 
Regina leberis 15: 121. 
Rhabdosoma maculatum 68: 11. 
Rhacophorus dimbullae 53: 105. 
Rhacophorus f ergusonianus 53: 

105. 
Rhacophorus fergusonii 53: 105. 
Rhacophorus leucomystax 

guadrilineatus 80: 65. 
Rhacophorus moltrechti 51: 159. 
Rhacophorus owstoni 51: 159. 
Rhacophorus robustus 51: 159. 
Rhacophorus stictomerus 53: 105. 
Rhadinaea 56: 109; 67: 159. 
Rhadinaea aemula 72: 79. 
Rhadinaea crassa 55: 185. 
Rhadinaea decorata 55: 185. 
Rhadinaea flavilata 23: 9. 
Rhadinaea forbesi 55: 185. 
Rhadinaea gaigeae 55: 185. 
Rhadinaea hempsteadae 55: 159. 



Rhadinaea hesperia baileyi 

55: 185. 
Rhadinaea hesperia hesperia 

55: 185; 72: 79. 
Rhadinaea hesperia 

hesperioides 55: 185. 
Rhadinaea lachrymans 62: 165. 
Rhadinaea lineata 98: 295. 
Rhadinaea guinquelineata 55: 

159. 
Rhadinaea veraepacis 62: 165. 
Rhadinea binotata 35: 219. 
Rhadinae steinbachi 35: 219. 
Rhadinea undulata 35: 219. 
Rhamnophis jacksonii 49: 63. 
Rhamphophryne 95: 557. 
Rhinemys nasuta 22: 125. 
Rhinemys rufipes 22: 125. 
Rhineura 76: 153. 
Rhineura floridana 23: 9. 
Rhinocheilus lecontei 21: 69. 
Rhinoderma darwinii 93: 920. 
Rhinoderma signifera 98: 657. 
Rhinoleptus 98: 204. 
Rhinotyphlops albirostris 39: 

123; 45: 173. 
Rhinotyphlops lalandii 45: 173. 
Riopa punctata 15: 239. 

Salamandra bislineata 62: 89. 
Salamandra margaritifera 15: 239 
Salamandra palustris 15: 239. 
Salamandra phoca 58: 39. 
Salamandra venenosa 15: 239. 
Salamandrella 30: 123. 
Salamandrella wasnessenskyi 

61: 127. 
Salvadora 56: 109. 
Salvadora grahamiae 21: 47; 

21: 69. 
Salvadora intermedia 

intermedia 72: 79. 
Salvadora mexicana 72: 79. 
Sauresia 78: 39; 92: 1. 
Sauresia sepsoides 40: 91; 

41: 53. 
Sauromaulus hispidus 53: 119. 
Sauromaulus obesus 53: 119. 
Sauromaulus townsendi 53: 119. 
Scaphiopus 62: 57; 80: 105. 
Scaphiopus couchii 21: 47; 

21: 53; 21: 69; 21: 199; 22: 

115; 23: 115; 43: 73. 
Scaphiopus hammondii 21: 53; 

21: 199; 23: 115; 43: 55. 



61 



Scaphiopus hammondii 

bombifrons 21: 53. 
Scaphiopus holbrookii 15: 

121; 21: 47; 21: 53; 21: 

199; 23: 9; 23: 115. 
Scaphiopus hurterii 23: 115. 
Sceloporus 53: 119; 56: 109; 

87: 327. 
Sceloporus aeneus 47: 121. 
Sceloporus asper 74: 37. 
Sceloporus bulleri 49: 87. 
Sceloporus carinatus 49: 87; 

67: 159. 
Sceloporus cautus 84: 3 07. 
Sceloporus chrysostictus 49: 87. 
Sceloporus cochranae 49: 87. 
Sceloporus consobrinus 21: 47; 

21: 69; 21: 85. 
Sceloporus couchii 17: 17; 

40: 57; 47: 121. 
Sceloporus dispar 29: 227. 
Sceloporus disparilis 29: 227. 
Sceloporus exsul 84: 307. 
Sceloporus ferrariperezi 49: 87. 
Sceloporus formosus 49: 87. 
Sceloporus formosus scitulus 

74: 37. 
Sceloporus gadoviae 74: 37. 
Sceloporus graciosus 47: 121. 
Sceloporus graciosus graciosus 

34: 63; 35: 1. 
Sceloporus grammicus grammicus 

74: 37. 
Sceloporus gratiosus 47: 121. 
Sceloporus guentheri 31: 89; 

49: 87. 
Sceloporus horridus horridus 

74: 37. 
Sceloporus horridus oligoporus 

74: 37. 
Sceloporus irazuensis 49: 87. 
Sceloporus jalapae 47:121; 49:87 
Sceloporus jarrovii 49: 87. 
Sceloporus jarrovii jarrovii 

53: 125. 
Sceloporus lineolateralis 49: 87 
Sceloporus lunaei 49: 87. 
Sceloporus maculosus 49: 87. 
Sceloporus magister 

monserratensis 67: 69. 
Sceloporus malachiticus 49: 87. 
Sceloporus marmoratus 47: 121. 
Sceloporus melanorhinus 31: 89. 
Sceloporus melanorhinus 

calligaster 74: 37. 



Sceloporus merriami 17 : 17 ; 

40: 57; 47: 121. 
Sceloporus merriami annulatus 

50: 83. 
Sceloporus merriami merriami 

50: 83. 
Sceloporus microlepidotus 29:227, 
Sceloporus microlepidotis 

disparilis 53: 125. 
Sceloporus microlepidotus 

disparillis 53: 125. 
Sceloporus mucronatus 

omiltemanus 74: 37. 
Sceloporus ochoterenae 49: 87. 
Sceloporus ochoterenai 74: 37. 
Sceloporus ornatus 29: 227. 
Sceloporus poinsettii 53: 125. 
Sceloporus pyrocephalus 74: 37. 
Sceloporus salvini 49: 87. 
Sceloporus scalaris 17: 17; 

47: 121. 
Sceloporus schmidti 49: 87. 
Sceloporus serrifer 31:89; 49:87 
Sceloporus siniferus 49: 87. 
Sceloporus siniferus siniferus 

74: 37. 
Sceloporus smaragdinus 49: 87. 
Sceloporus spinosus 21: 47; 

21: 69; 21: 165. 
Sceloporus spinosus apicalis 

64: 101. 
Sceloporus spinosus 

caeruleopunctatus 64: 101; 

74: 37. 
Sceloporus spinosus floridanus 

31: 89. 
Sceloporus spinosus spinosus 

44: 73; 64: 101; 74: 37. 
Sceloporus sguamosus 49: 87; 

67: 159. 
Sceloporus stejnegeri 74: 37. 
Sceloporus taeniocnemis 49: 87. 
Sceloporus torguatus 29: 227; 

31: 89; 49: 87. 
Sceloporus torguatus 

cyanogenys 44: 129. 
Sceloporus torguatus 

omiltemanus 44: 129. 
Sceloporus torguatus poinsetii 

44: 129. 
Sceloporus torguatus poinsetti 

44: 129. 
Sceloporus torguatus torguatus 

44: 129. 



62 



Sceloporus undulatus 15: 121; 

20: 1; 31: 89; 33: 129; 50: 

137; 84: 307. 
Sceloporus undulatus virgatus 

53: 125. 
Sceloporus variabilis 17: 17; 

40: 57; 49: 87. 
Sceloporus variabilis 

marmoratus 47: 121. 
Sceloporus variabilis 

variabilis 47: 121. 
Sceloporus virgatus 84: 397. 
Sceloporus viviparus 21: 165; 

49: 87. 
Sceloporus woodi 31: 89. 
Scincus viridipunctus 24: 15. 
Scolecophis atrocinctus 56: 109. 
Scolecophis michoacanensis 

56: 109. 
Scolecosaurus 78: 141. 
Scotobleps 55: 49. 
Seminatrix pygaea 23: 9. 
Sepsina weberi 35: 229. 
Shinisaurus crocodilurus 86: 105, 
Siaphos aequalis 54: 193. 
Siaphos meleagris helleri 45:113 
Sibon frenatum 52: 187. 
Sibon nebulatus 72: 79. 
Sibynomorphus 36: 185. 
Sibynomorphus annulata 34: 157. 
Sibynomorphus argus 34: 157. 
Sibynomorphus articulata 34: 157, 
Sibynomorphus bicolor 34: 157. 
Sibynomorphus pictiventris 

34: 157. 
Sibynomorphus ruthveni 34: 157. 
Sibynophis annulatus annulatus 

49: 43. 
Sibynophis annulatus 

hondurensis 49: 43. 
Siluboura nigra 55: 49. 
Silybura 55: 49. 
Simotes brevicauda 82: 763. 
Simotes cyclurus 82: 763. 
Sinohadrianus sichuanensis 

96: 567. 
Siren lacertina 15: 121; 21: 47; 

21: 53; 22: 129; 23: 9; Bl: 1. 
Siren lacertura 20: 1. 
Sistrurus catenatus 20: 1. 
Sistrurus catenatus consors 

21: 47. 
Sistrurus miliarius 21: 47; 

21: 69; 23: 9; 33: 129. 



Smilisca baudinii 21: 47; 21: 

53; 74: 195; 93: 1177. 
Smilisca phaeota 93: 1177. 
Smilisca puma 93: 1177. 
Smilisca sila 93: 1177. 
Sminthillus 98: 774. 
Sonora episcopa episcopa 56: 109 
Sonora episcopa taylori 56: 109. 
Sonora erythura 56: 109. 
Sonora michoacanensis 

michoacanensis 56: 109. 
Sonora michoacanensis 

mutabilis 56: 109. 
Sonora miniata linearis 56: 109. 
Sonora miniata miniata 56: 109. 
Sonora mosaueri 56: 109. 
Sonora occipitalis 56: 109. 
Sonora semiannulata blanchardi 

56: 109. 
Sonora semiannulata gloydi 

56: 109. 
Sonora semiannulata isozona 

56: 109. 
Sonora semiannulata linearis 

56: 109. 
Sonora semiannulata 

semiannulata 56: 109. 
Sooglossus 51: 191. 
Spalerosophis diadema 

cliff ordi 83: 477. 
Spelerpes 22: 129. 
Spelerpes bilineatus 25: 135. 
Spelerpes bislineatus 15: 121; 

20: 1. 
Spelerpes danielsi 25: 135. 
Spelerpes guttolineatus 15: 

121; 23: 9; 25: 135; Bl: 1. 
Spelerpes lignicolor 76: 289. 
Spelerpes longicaudus 15: 121; 

20: 1; Bl: 1. 
Spelerpes maculicaudus 20: 1. 
Spelerpes montanus 30: 87. 
Spelerpes multiplicatus 21: 85. 
Spelerpes porphyriticus 17: 102. 
Spelerpes ruber 30: 87. 
Spelerpes ruber ruber 15: 

121; 25: 135. 
Spelerpes ruber schencki 25:135. 
Spelerpes vermicularis 65: 1. 
Sphaerodactylus alayoi 87: 337. 
Sphaerodactylus alopex 29: 215. 
Sphaerodactylus altavelensis 

90: 243; 95: 81. 
Sphaerodactylus argus 71: 27. 



63 



Sphaerodactylus argus 

continentalis 49: 43. 
Sphaerodactylus armasi 87: 337, 
Sphaerodactylus armstrongi 

88: 367; 90: 243; 95: 81. 
Sphaerodactylus asper 28: 71. 
Sphaerodactylus brevirostratus 

86: 35. 
Sphaerodactylus bromeliarum 

95: 392. 
Sphaerodactylus calicara 95: 

392. 
Sphaerodactylus cinereus 41: 

53; 71: 27; 87: 337; 95: 81. 
Sphaerodactylus copei 41: 53; 

90: 243; 95: 81. 
Sphaerodactylus copei enochrus 

88: 367. 
Sphaerodactylus copei 

picturatus 88: 367. 
Sphaerodactylus copei websteri 

88: 367. 
Sphaerodactylus corticolus 

29: 215. 
Sphaerodactylus cryphius 90: 

243; 95: 81. 
Sphaerodactylus darlingtoni 

95: 81. 
Sphaerodactylus decoratus 29: 

215; 87: 337. 
Sphaerodactylus decoratus 

decoratus 71: 27. 
Sphaerodactylus decoratus 

drapetiscus 71: 27. 
Sphaerodactylus decoratus 

gibbus 71: 27. 
Sphaerodactylus decoratus 

torrei 71: 27. 
Sphaerodactylus difficilis 49: 

43; 86: 35; 90: 985. 
Sphaerodactylus difficilis 

randi 88: 367; 90: 243. 
Sphaerodactylus dunni 49: 43. 
Sphaerodactylus elegans 28: 

71; 30: 163; 95: 81. 
Sphaerodactylus elegantulus 

30: 163; 51: 147. 
Sphaerodactylus fantasticus 

28: 71; 51: 147. 
Sphaerodactylus festus 28: 71. 
Sphaerodactylus flavicaudis 

71: 27. 
Sphaerodactylus gibbus 71: 27. 
Sphaerodactylus glaucus 49: 43. 



Sphaerodactylus grandisguamis 

30: 97. 
Sphaerodactylus intermedius 

87: 337. 
Sphaerodactylus leucaster 86: 

35; 90: 243. 
Sphaerodactylus levinsi 90: 985. 
Sphaerodactylus lineolatus 

16: 3; 49: 43. 
Sphaerodactylus macrolepis 28: 

71; 30: 97; 45: 183; 90: 985. 
Sphaerodactylus mariguanae 

90: 985. 
Sphaerodactylus melanospilus 

28: 71. 
Sphaerodactylus micropithecus 

90: 985. 
Sphaerodactylus monensis 90: 985, 
Sphaerodactylus nigropunctatus 

71: 27. 
Sphaerodactylus nigropunctatus 

strategus 87: 337. 
Sphaerodactylus notatus 29: 

215; 71: 27. 
Sphaerodactylus notatus 

atactus 87: 337; 95: 392. 
Sphaerodactylus notatus randi 

90: 243. 
Sphaerodactylus nycteropus 95:81. 
Sphaerodactylus oliveri 71: 27. 
Sphaerodactylus omoglaux 95: 81. 
Sphaerodactylus pacificus 16: 3. 
Sphaerodactylus picturatus 28:71. 
Sphaerodactylus randi 

methorius 90: 243. 
Sphaerodactylus randi randi 

90: 243. 
Sphaerodactylus randi strahmi 

90: 243. 
Sphaerodactylus rhabdotus 86: 

35; 90: 243. 
Sphaerodactylus richardsonii 

28: 71; 45: 183. 
Sphaerodactylus ruibali 87: 337. 
Sphaerodactylus sabanus 51: 147. 
Sphaerodactylus samanensis 

45: 183. 
Sphaerodactylus savagei 90: 985. 
Sphaerodactylus scaber 71: 27; 

79: 255. 
Sphaerodactylus shrevei 86: 35. 
Sphaerodactylus sputator 28: 71; 

30: 163; 51: 147. 
Sphaerodactylus stejnegeri 

71: 27; 87: 337. 



64 



Sphaerodactylus streptophorus 

90: 243; 95: 81. 
Sphaerodactylus thompsoni 88: 

367; 90: 243. 
Sphaerodactylus torrei 28: 

71; 30: 163; 71: 27; 87: 337. 
Sphaerodactylus vincenti 51: 147 
Sphenomorphus arborens 80: 69. 
Sphenomorphus decipiens 80: 69. 
Sphenomorphus diwata 80: 69. 
Sphenomorphus helenae 40: 179. 
Sphenomorphus jagori 80: 69. 
Sphenomorphus kinabaluensis 

80: 69. 
Sphenomorphus lednickyi 80: 69. 
Sphenomorphus mindanensis 80: 69 
Sphenomorphus multisquamatus 

80: 69. 
Sphenomorphus guoyi 27: 201. 
Sphenomorphus sabanus 80: 69. 
Sphenomorphus steerei 80: 69. 
Sphenomorphus variegatum 80: 69. 
Sphenophis 31: 99. 
Sphenophryne mehelyi 91: 965. 
Sphenosoma bowringi 40: 179. 
Sphenosoma hughi 40: 179. 
Spilotes corais couperi 23: 9. 
Spilotes pullatus 29: 221. 
Spilotes pullatus dichrous 

36: 185. 
Staurios 55: 49. 
Staurios afghana 55: 71. 
Staurios larutensis 55: 71. 
Staurios natator 55: 71. 
Staurois parvus 95: 621. 
Stenocephalus 23: 165. 
Stenodactylus 57: 1. 
Stenorhina 56: 109. 
Stenorrhina freminvilli 

freminvilli 72: 79. 
Stenorrhina freminvilli lactea 

72: 79. 
Stereochilus marginatus 22: 129. 
Sternoteirus 15: 235. 
Sternothaerus boscii 15: 235. 
Sternothaerus leachianus 15: 235 
Sternothaerus odorata 15: 235. 
Sternothaerus odoratus 15: 235. 
Sternothaerus trifasciatus 

15: 235. 
Sternotherus odorata 15: 2 35. 
Sternotherus odoratus 15: 

235; 50: 137; 56: 168. 
Sternotherus pennsylvanica 

15: 235. 



Stilosoma 76: 153. 
Stilosoma extenuatum 23: 9. 
Storeria dekayi 15: 121; 20: 

1; 21: 47; 21: 69; 21: 85; 

23: 9; 50: 137. 
Storeria occipitomaculata 15: 

121; 76: 297. 
Storeria occipitomaculata 

occipitomaculata 76: 159. 
Stupendemys geographicus 99: 472 
Stylemys 96: 567. 
Syrrhophus 64: 33. 
Syrrhophus campi 28: 131. 
Syrrhophus juninensis 98: 774. 
Syrrhophus latodactylus 54: 87. 
Syrrhophus leprus 28: 131; 

53: 95. 
Syrrhophus lutosus 34: 157; 

94: 413. 
Syrrhophus montium 98: 774. 
Syrrhophus omiltemanus 54: 87. 
Syrrhophus pipilans 53: 95. 
Syrrhophus ridens 94: 413. 
Syrrhopus marnochii 21: 53; 

28: 131. 
Syrrhopus molinoi 94: 413. 
Syrrhopus mystaceus 35: 111. 
Systoma 23: 165. 



Tachymen 
Tachymen 
Tantilla 
Tantilla 
Tantilla 

55; 72 
Tantilla 
Tantilla 
Tantilla 
Tantilla 
Tantilla 
Tantilla 
Tantilla 

2 3: 9 ; 
Tantilla 

76: 30 
Tantilla 
Tantilla 
Tantilla 
Tantilla 

85; 53 
Tantilla 
Tantilla 
Tantilla 
Tantilla 



is elongata 35: 219. 
is surinamensis 35: 219 
49: 51. 

atriceps 53: 55. 

bocourti 29: 93; 53: 
: 78. 



boulengeri 56 

breve 53: 55. 

brevissima 

calamarina 

canula 53 

coronadoi 

coronata 



109 



55. 

55, 



53 

53 
: 55. 

72: 79. 
22: 129; 



109 



29: 93; 53: 55; 56 
coronata coronata 
5. 
deviatrix 29: 93. 
eiseni 53: 55. 
flavilineata 64: 
gracilis 21: 69; 

55; 56: 109. 
jani 64: 97. 
lintoni 53: 55. 
martindelcampoi 53: 55. 
melanocephala 36: 185. 



97 
21 



65 



Tantilla nigriceps nigriceps 

53: 55. 
Tantilla rubra 56: 109. 
Tantilla rubrum 53: 55. 
Tantilla schistosa 53: 55. 
Tantilla semicincta 50: 11; 

56: 109. 
Tantilla striata 64: 97. 
Tantilla taeniata 64: 97. 
Tantilla triseriata 64: 97. 
Tantilla wilcoxi 29: 93; 53: 

55; 53: 125. 
Tarbophis 45: 83. 
Tarbophis beetzii 35: 229. 
Tarbophis semiannulatus 35: 229. 
Tarentola americana americana 

81: 123. 
Tarentola americana warreni 

81: 123. 
Tarentola annularis 26: 145. 
Tarentola cubana 29:215; 81:123. 
Teius 42: 153. 
Teius teyou teyou 44: 73. 
Telmatobius 37: 65; 62: 57. 
Telmatobius arequipensis 98: 774 
Telmatobius barrioi 98: 774. 
Telmatobius cirrhacelis 98: 774. 
Telmatobius duseni 96: 548. 
Telmatobius jelskii 98: 774. 
Telmatobius juninensis 98: 774. 
Telmatobius lintoni 98: 774. 
Telmatobius marmoratus 98: 774. 
Telmatobius niger 98: 774. 
Telmatobius peruvianus 98: 774. 
Telmatobius schreiteri 98: 774. 
Telmatobius simonsi 98: 774. 
Telmatobufo australis 95: 688. 
Telmatobufo bullocki 95: 688. 
Telmatobufo venustus 93: 920; 

95: 688. 
Teratohyla 64: 33. 
Teratohyla spinosa 64: 33. 
Terrapene amboinensis 15: 235. 
Terrapene bauri 23: 9. 
Terrapene boscii 15: 235. 
Terrapene Carolina 15: 121; 

22: 129; 23: 9; 23: 124; 33: 

129; 50: 137. 
Terrapene Carolina Carolina 

39: 19. 
Terrapene Carolina triunguis 

21: 85; 23: 115. 
Terrapene clausa 15: 235. 
Terrapene goldmani 46: 119. 
Terrapene major 23: 9. 



Terrapene nigricans 15: 235. 
Terrapene odorata 15: 2 35. 
Terrapene ornata 15: 235; 21: 

47; 21: 69; 44: 11. 
Terrapene pennsylvanica 15: 235. 
Terrapene sinica 96: 567. 
Terrapene tricarinata 15: 2 35. 
Terrapene triunguis 23: 9. 
Terraphene clausa 15: 235. 
Testudo antiqua 96: 567. 
Testudo chienfutungensis 96: 567. 
Testudo concentrica Bl: 1. 
Testudo demissa 96: 567. 
Testudo ferox Bl: 1. 
Testudo galeata 22: 125. 
Testudo graeca 96: 567; B8 : 108. 
Testudo hermanni 96: 567; B8:108 
Testudo hipporionum 96: 567. 
Testudo hanenensis 96: 567. 
Testudo horsfieldii 96: 567. 
Testudo hypercostata 96: 567. 
Testudo insolita 96: 567. 
Testudo insolitus 96: 567. 
Testudo kaiseni 96: 567. 
Testudo kalganensis 96: 567. 
Testudo kegenica 96: 567. 
Testudo longicollis 22: 125. 
Testudo lunanensis 96: 567. 
Testudo nanus 96: 567. 
Testudo picta Bl: 1. 
Testudo polyphemus 23: 9. 
Testudo scorpioides 15: 235. 
Testudo shansiensis 96: 567. 
Testudo spengleri 15: 235. 
Testudo sphaerica 96: 567. 
Testudo tabulata 51: 147. 
Testudo tungia 96: 567. 
Testudo turgida 96: 567. 
Testudo tunhuanensis 96: 567. 
Testudo ulanensis 96: 567. 
Testudo yunnanensis 96: 567. 
Testudo yushensis 96: 567. 
Tetraprion jordani 55: 151. 
Thalassochelys caretta 23: 9. 
Thalerophis diplotropis 72: 79. 
Thamnophis angustirostris 53:125 
Thamnophis arabdotus 53: 55. 
Thamnophis brachystoma 58 : 

147: 69: 71. 
Thamnophis butleri 45: 195; 

58: 147; 69: 71. 
Thamnophis chrysocephalus 72: 79 
Thamnophis cyrtopsis cyclides 

72: 79. 
Thamnophis elegans 45: 195. 



66 



Thamnophis eques 53: 55; 53: 12 5. 
Thamnophis lineatus 45: 195. 
Thamnophis marcianus 45: 195. 
Thamnophis multimaculata 53: 125. 
Thamnophis ordinoides 

ordinoides 45: 195. 
Thamnophis ordinoides vagrans 

45: 195. 
Thamnophis proximus 45: 195. 
Thamnophis radix 69: 71. 
Thamnophis radix butleri 45: 

195; 58: 147. 
Thamnophis radix haydeni 76: 159. 
Thamnophis radix radix 45: 195. 
Thamnophis rozellae 53: 55. 
Thamnophis sauritus 15: 121; 

33: 129. 
Thamnophis scalaris godmani 

72: 79. 
Thamnophis sirtalis 15: 121; 

33: 129; 45: 195. 
Thamnophis sirtalis dorsalis 

15: 121. 
Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis 

44: 11; 76: 159. 
Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis 

50: 137; 69: 93. 
Thamnophis sumichrasti 53: 55. 
Thecodactylus rapicaudus 28: 

71; 51: 147. 
Therapene 15: 235. 
Thoropa 96: 548; 98: 774. 
Thoropa lutzi 51: 41. 
Thoropa miliaris 51: 41. 
Thrasops jacksonii jacksonii 

49: 63. 
Thrasops jacksonii schmidti 

49: 63. 
Thrasops rothschildi 49: 63. 
Toluca 56: 109. 
Toluca conica 72: 79. 
Tomodactylus 98: 774. 
Trachemys scripta 93: 339. 
Trichobatrachus 55: 49. 
Trigonocephalus intermedius 

85: 557. 
Trimeresurus chaseni 51: 43. 
Trimeresurus garciai 53: 55. 
Trimeresurus gramineus 51: 43. 
Trimeresurus lansbergii 

annectens 49: 43. 
Trimeresurus lansbergii 

lansbergii 49: 43. 
Trimeresurus lansbergii 

ophryomegas 49: 43. 



Trimeresurus nasutus 49: 43. 
Trimeresurus nummifer nummifer 

52: 165. 
Trimeresurus nummifer picadoi 

52: 165. 
Trimeresurus ophyromegas 49: 43. 
Trimeresurus sumatranus 

malcolmi 51: 43. 
Trimeresurus sumatranus 

sumatranus 51: 43. 
Trimeresurus undulatus 53: 55. 
Trimerorhinus tritaeniatus 

multisguamis 45: 83. 
Trimerorhinus tritaeniatus 

tritaeniatus 45: 83. 
Trimerorhinus variabilis 45: 83. 
Trimetopon barbouri 62: 165; 

67: 159. 
Trimetopon gracile 62:165; 67:159 
Trimetopon hannsteini 62 : 

165; 67: 159. 
Trimetopon pilonaorum 67: 159. 
Trimetopon pliolepis 62: 165. 
Trimetopon posadasi 62: 165; 

67: 159. 
Trimetopon simile 62:165; 67:159. 
Trimetopon sleveni 62:165; 67:159 
Trimetopon veraepacis 62: 165; 

67: 159. 
Trimetopon viquezi 62:165; 67:159 
Trimorphodon 56: 109. 
Trimorphodon biscutatus 

semirutus 72: 79. 
Trimorphodon latifascia 72: 79. 
Trionyx ferox 23: 9; 23: 115. 
Trionyx muticus 20: 1. 
Trionyx spiniferus 20: 1. 
Triprion 52: 187. 
Triprion petasatus 55: 151. 
Triton ensicauda 51: 159. 
Triton sibiricus 30: 123. 
Triton subcristatus 51: 159. 
Triturus ensicaudus 51: 159. 
Triturus granulosus 62: 57. 
Triturus rivularis 62 : 57 . 
Triturus torosus 43: 55. 
Triturus viridescens 33: 129. 
Triturus viridescens 

viridescens 50: 137; 59: 

165; 59: 166. 
Tropidoclonion lineatum 

annectens 76: 297. 
Tropidoclonion lineatum 

lineatum 76: 297. 



67 



Tropidoclonion lineatum 

texanum 76: 297. 
Tropidoclonium lineatum 21: 

69; 45: 195; 76: 297. 
Tropidoclonium lineatum iowae 

76: 297. 
Tropidodipsas 36: 185. 
Tropidodipsas fasciata 55: 159. 
Tropidodipsas fischeri 55: 159. 
Tropidodipsas guerreroensis 

72: 79. 
Tropidodipsas kidderi 55: 159. 
Tropidodipsas sartorii 55: 159. 
Tropidogaster spilogaster 36:185. 
Tropidonotus clarkii 21: 47. 
Tropidonotus erythrogaster 

21: 69. 
Tropidonotus fasciatus 21: 69. 
Tropidonotus grahami 21: 69. 
Tropidonotus johannis 50: 125. 
Tropidonotus leberis 21: 85. 
Tropidonotus modestus 50: 125. 
Tropidonotus rhombifer 21: 

47; 21: 69. 
Tropidonotus sipedon fasciatus 

21: 47; 21: 69; 21: 85. 
Tropidonotus sipedon 

transversus 21:47; 21:69; 21:85 
Tropidonotus transversus 21: 69. 
Tropidophis canus 88: 77. 
Tropidophis feicki 71:37; 88:77. 
Trodophis haetiana 41: 53. 
Tropidophis haetianus 88: 77. 
Tropidophis maculatus pilsbryi 

88: 77. 
Tropidophis melanurus 88: 77. 
Tropidophis nigriventris 

hardyi 88: 77. 
Tropidophis nigriventris 

nigriventris 88: 77. 
Tropidophis pardalis 88: 77. 
Tropidophis paucisguamis 59: 17. 
Tropidophis pilsbryi 

galacelidus 88: 77. 
Tropidophis pilsbryi pilsbryi 

88: 77. 
Tropidophis semicinctus 88: 77. 
Tropidophis taczanowskyi 59: 17. 
Tropidophis wrighti 88: 77. 
Tropidophorus beccarii 58: 47. 
Tropidophorus berdmorei 58: 47. 
Tropidophorus darlingtoni 58: 47. 
Tropidophorus laotus 58: 47. 
Tropidophorus mocguardi 58: 47. 
Tropiocolottes helenae 83: 477. 



Tropiocolotes steudneri 83: 477. 
Tropiocolotes tripolitanus 

83: 477. 
Tupinambis 42: 153. 
Tupinambis nigropunctatus 29: 

221. 
Typhlomolge rathbuni 21: 53. 
Typhlonectes natans 37: 125. 
Typhlops 36: 185. 
Typhlops biminiensis 78: 121; 

79: 255. 
Typhlops braminus 72: 79. 
Typhlops broomi 58: 111. 
Typhlops capitulata 79: 255. 
Typhlops caymanensis 78: 121; 

79: 255. 
Typhlops costaricensis 78: 121. 
Typhlops diversus 58: 111. 
Typhlops dominicana 79: 255. 
Typhlops emunctus 45: 173. 
Typhlops f lavoterminatus 39: 123 
Typhlops frontalis 45: 173. 
Typhlops granti 79: 255. 
Typhlops haitiensis 79: 255. 
Typhlops hectus 87: 11. 
Typhlops jamaicensis 79: 255. 
Typhlops lehneri 78: 121. 
■Typhlops lumbricalis 28: 71; 41: 

53; 78: 121; 79: 255; 87: 11. 
Typhlops monastus 79: 255. 
Typhlops monastus geotomus 

79: 255. 
Typhlops monastus monastus 

79: 255. 
Typhlops monensis 79: 255; 

90: 985. 
Typhlops pusilla 79: 255. 
Typhlops pusillus 87: 11. 
Typhlops richardi 

platycephalus 79: 255. 
Typhlops richardi richardi 

79: 255. 
Typhlops reticulatus 78: 121. 
Typhlops rostellata 79: 255. 
Typhlops stadelmani 49: 43. 
Typhlops sulcata 79: 255. 
Typhlops syntherus 79: 255; 

87: 11; 88: 367. 
Typhlops tenuis 49: 43. 
Typhlops tovelli 58: 111. 
Typhlops trinitatus 78: 121. 
Typhlops unilineatus 78: 121. 
Typhlotriton 50: 141. 



68 



17. 




17. 




17. 




44: 


89 


44: 


89 


44: 


89 



847. 
119. 
119. 



Uma 73: 67. 

Uperolia marmorata 27: 201. 
Ungalia brasiliensis 59: 17 
Ungalia paucisquamis 59 
Ungalia taczanowskyi 59 
Ungaliophis danieli 59: 
Uromacer catesbyi 41: 53 
Uromacer dorsalis 41: 53 
Uromacer frenatus 41: 53 , 
Uromacer oxyrhynchus 41: 53; 

44: 89. 
Uromacer scandax 44: 89. 
Uromacer wetmorei 44: 89. 
Urosaurus bicarinatus 

anonymorphus 74: 37. 
Urosaurus bicarinatus 

bicarinatus 74: 37. 
Urotheca bicinctus 82: 
Urotheca elapoides 54 
Urotheca euryzonus 54 : 
Uta 47: 121; 53: 119. 
Uta ornata chiricahuae 54: 165. 
Uta ornata linearis 54: 165. 
Uta stansburiana 35: 1. 
Uta stansburiana nevadensis 

26: 27. 

Vanzolinius 87: 81. 
Vanzolinius discodactylus 87: 

81; 87: 327. 
Varanus griseus 83: 477. 
Verticaria caerulea 42: 153. 
Verticaria ceralbensis 42: 153. 
Verticaria hyperythra 

hyperythra 42: 153. 
Verticaria picta 42: 153. 
Verticaria sericea 42: 153. 
Virginia elegans 20: 1; 23: 9. 
Virginia valeriae 15: 121; 23:9 
Virginia valeriae valeriae 

50: 137. 



Xenodon colubrinus 53: 55. 
Xenodon gigas 82: 947. 
Xenodon mexicanus 53: 55. 
Xenodon rabdocephalus 59: 17. 
Xenopus laevis bunyoniensis 

45: 113. 
Xenopus laevis laevis 45: 113. 
Xenopus laevis victorianus 

45: 113. 
Xenosaurus grandis 54:47; 54:217 
Xenosaurus grandis arboreus 

86: 105. 
Xenosaurus newmanorum 86: 105. 
Xenosaurus platyceps 86: 105. 
Xenosaurus rackhami 54: 47; 

54:217. 
Xerobates berlandieri 21: 47. 
Xestosaurus bogotensis 42: 99. 

Zachaenys pervulus 37: 65. 
Zamenis constrictor 20:1; 21:85. 
Zamenis constrictor 

constrictor 21: 69. 
Zamenis constrictor 

flaviventris 21: 65; 23: 9. 
Zamenis flagellum 21: 69, 115. 
Zamenis flagellum flagellum 21: 

47. 
Zamenis florulentus 26: 145. 



Wetmorena 40: 91; 92: 1. 
Wetmorena haetiana 40: 91. 
Wetmorena haetiana haetiana 

78: 39. 
Wetmorena haetiana mulica 78:39, 
Wetmorena haetiana surda 78: 39, 
Woodworthia 25: 187. 



3 

pip 

PT 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CHILDREN'S LITERATURE AND 
EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES 




DREUX J. WATERMOLEN 

Division of Natural Sciences 
St. Norbert College 




SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL INFORMATION 
SERVICE 
NO. 93 



1992 



SMITHSONIAN 
HERPETOLOGICAL 
INFORMATION 
SERVICE 



The SHIS series publishes and distributes translations, 
bibliographies, indices, and similar items judged useful 
to individuals interested in the biology of amphibians 
and reptiles, but unlikely to be published in the normal 
technical journals. Single copies are distributed free 
to interested individuals. Libraries, herpetological 
associations, and research laboratories are invited to 
exchange their publications with the Division of 
Amphibians and Reptiles. 

We wish to encourage individuals to share their 
bibliographies, translations, etc. with other 
herpetologists through the SHIS series. If you have 
such items please contact George Zug for instructions on 
preparation and submission. Contributors receive 50 
free copies. 

Please address all requests for copies and inquiries to 
George Zug, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, 
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington DC 20560 USA. Please include 
a self-addressed mailing label with requests. 



INTRODUCTION 

This bibliography of children's literature and educational 
resources is for both educators and scientists. Often in an 
attempt to stimulate and facilitate learning, we encourage 
students to read. This bibliography offers young readers, their 
parents, and teachers a selections of excellent books from which 
to choose. For the scientists called into schools or nature 
centers to share her/his knowledge, this compilation provides a 
list of resources to help bridge the gap between the presentation 
and the classroom program. 

Section I is a list of 135 children's books (primarily 
nonfiction) . Entries are alphabetical by author and numbered 
sequentially. Those entries followed by an asterisk* are judged 
particularly useful and accurate. The indices following the 
bibliography provide cross-reference by grade level and taxonomic 
group and direct the user to specific books by their numeric 
code. Section II provides an additional list of resources to 
assist teachers in their classroom activities. 

This bibliography is not all inclusive. I offer it as a 
starting place to assist educators and scientists in their 
interactions with young readers and novice naturalists. I hope 
that it will stimulate further interest in the study and 
conservation of amphibians and reptiles. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Marianne O'Callaghan ( Interlibrary Loan Librarian, St. 
Norbert College) and Laura Hemming (Associate Academic Librarian, 
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay) worked diligently to obtain 
copies of many of the works included in the bibliography. Dr. 
Mary Alyce Lach, S.S.N.D. (St. Norbert College) taught me the 
value of children's literature and provided the initial 
inspiration for this compilation. 



2 

Section I: Children's Literature 

1. Ancona, G. 1987. Turtle Watch. MacMillan Publishing, New 
York. 

2. Anonymous. 1982. One Green Frog. Putnam Publishing Group, 
New York. 

3. Ballard, L. 1982. Reptiles. Children's Press, Chicago. 

4. Barger and Johnson. 1987. Anacondas. Rourke Corporation, 
Vero Beach, FL. * 

1987. Coral Snakes. Rourke Corporation, Vero 
FL. * 

1987. King Snakes. Rourke Corporation, Vero 
FL. * 

1987. Pythons. Rourke Corporation, Vero Beach, 



5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 



Beach, 



Beach, 



FL. 



FL. 



1987. Rat Snakes. Rourke Corporation, Vero BEach, 



1987. Tree Vipers. Rourke Corporation, Vero 
Beach, FL. * 

10. Barrett, J. 1983. A Snake is Totally Tail. MacMillan, New 
York. 

11. Bender, L. 1988. Lizards and Dragons. Gloucester, New 
York. 

12. . 1988. Pythons and Boas. Franklin Watts, New York. 

13. Berkowitz, H. 1985. Amphibians and Reptiles. Banyan 
Books, Miami. 

14. Billings, C.W. 1978. Spring Peepers are Calling. Dodd, 
Mead & Co. , New York. 

15. Blassingame, W. 1973. Wonders of Alligators and 
Crocodiles. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York. 

16. Braithwaite, A. 1988. Frogs (Life Cycle Books). Longman 
Group, Chicago. 

17. Brenner, B. 1970. A Snake-Lover's Diary. Young Scott 
Books, Reading. * 

18. Bush, D. (n.d.). Magic Smith the Chameleon. Rolling Hills 
Press, San Rafael, CA. 

19. Carle, E. 1984. The Mixed Dp Chameleon. Harper & Row, New 
York. 

20. Chace, E.G. 1984. Rattlesnakes. Putnam Publishing Group, 
New York. 

21. Coldrey, J. 1987. The World of Frogs. Gareth Stevens, 
Milwaukee. 

22. Cole, J. 1980. A Frog's Body. William Morrow & Co., New 
York. 

23. . 1981. A Snake's Body. William Morrow & Co., New 

York. 

24. Cook, D. 1981. Small World of Reptiles. Franklin Watts, 
New York. 



25. Creighton, S. 1988. The Giant Lizard. Crestwood House, 
Glendale, CA. 

26. Curtis, N. 1985. Discovering Snakes and Lizards. Franklin 
Watts, New York. 

27. Cutts, D. 1973. I Can Read About Reptiles. Troll 
Associates, Mahwah, NJ. 

28. Dallinger, J. and S.A. Johnson. 1982. Progs and Toads. 
Lerner Publications, Minneapolis. * 

29. Darling, L. and L. Darling. 1962. Turtles. William Morrow 
& Co. , New York. 

30. Dauer, R. 1988. Bullfrog Grows Up. Greenwillow, New York. 

31. Davis, B. 1989. King Snake. Scholastic, New York. 

32. Elting, M. 1987. Snakes and Other Reptiles. Simon & 
Schuster, New York. 

33. Fichter, G. 1982. Poisonous Snakes. Franklin Watts, New 
York. 

34. . 1982. Reptiles and Amphibians of North America. 

Random House, New York. 

35. Fine, E.H. 1988. The Python and Anaconda. Crestwood 
House, Mankato, MN. 

36. Florian, D. 1986. Discovering Frogs. MacMillan, New York. 

37. Freedman, R. 1982. Killer Snakes. Holiday House, New 
York. 

38. . 1984. Rattlesnakes. Holiday House, New York. 

39. George, J.C. 1967. The Moon of the Salamanders. Thomas Y. 
Crowell Co. , New York. 

40. Green, C.R. and W.R. Sanford. 1984. The Rattlesnake. 
Crestwood House, Mankato, MN. 

41. and . 1986. The Cobra. Crestwood House, 

Mankato, MN. 

42. Gross, R.B. 1973. Snakes. Scholastic, New York. 

43. . 1976. Alligators and other Crocodilians. Four 

Winds Press, New York. 

44. Hale, B. 1989. The Legend of the Laughing Gecko: a 
Hawaiian Fantasy. Geckostufs, Inc., Honolulu. 

45. Harrison, V. 1988. The World of Lizards. Gareth Stevens, 
Milwaukee. 

46. Hawes, J. 1972. What I Like about Toads. Harper & Row, 
New York. 

47. . 1975. Why Progs are Wet. Harper & Row, New York. 

48. . 1987. Spring Peepers. Harper & Row, New York. 

49. Heller, R. 1986. How to Hide a Crocodile. Putnam 
Publishing Group, New York. 

50. . 1986. How to Hide a Gray Tree Frog. Putnam 

Publishing Group, New York. 

51. Hess, L. 1968. The Remarkable Chameleon. Scribner's Sons, 
New York. * 



4 

52. . 1987. The Snake in the Grass. MacMillan, New 

York. 

53. Himmelman, J. 1982. Talestar the Lizard. Dial Books, New 
York. 

54. Hoffman, M. 1988. Snake: Animals in the Wild. Scholastic, 
New York. * 

55. Hogan, P.Z. 1979. The Crocodile. Raintree Publishers, 
Milwaukee. 

56. . 1984. The Prog. Raintree Publishers, Milwaukee. 

57. Hogner, D. 1956. Frogs and Polliwogs. Harper & Row, New 
York. * 

58. . 1966. Book of Snakes. Harper & Row, New York. 

59. Holling, H.C. 1951. Minn of the Mississippi. Houghton 
Mifflin, Boston. * 

60. Hopf, A.L. 1981. Biography of a Komodo Dragon. Putnam 
Publishing Group, New York. 

61. Hornblow, L. & A. Hornblow. 1970. Reptiles do the 
Strangest Things. Random House, New York. 

62. Johnson, S.A. 1986. Snakes. Lerner Publications, 
Minneapolis. * 

63. . 1986. Treefrogs. Lerner Publications, 

Minneapolis. * 

64. and J. Dallinger. 1986. Frogs and Toads. Lerner 

Publications, Minneapolis. * 

65. Johnston, G. and J. Cutchins. Scaly Babies: Reptiles 
Growing Up. William Morrow & Co., New York. * 

66. Kalan, R. 1981. Jump, Frog, Jump! Greenwillow Books, New 
York. 

67. Kellogg, S. 1979. The Mysterious Tadpole. Dial Books, New 
York. 

68. Khemvichanuvet, C. 1979. The Poor Lizard. Cellar Book 
Shop, Detroit. * 

69. Kuchalla, S. 1982. What is a Reptile? Troll Associates, 
Mahwah, MN. * 

70. Lacey, E.A. 1989. The Complete Frog: a Guide for the Very 
Young Naturalist. Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, New York. 

71. Lambert, D. 1983. Reptiles. Gloucester Press, New York. 

72. . 1986. Snakes. Franklin Watts, New York. 

73. Lane, M. 1982. The Frog. Dial Books, New York. 

74. Lauber, P. 1974. Who Needs Alligators? Garrard 
Publishing, Champaign, IL. 

75. . 1988. Snakes are Hunters. Harper & Row, New York. 

76. LeBlanc, L. 1967. Little Frog Learns to Sing. Oddo 
Publishing, Fayetteville, GA. 

77. Linley, M. (n.d.) Discovering Frogs and Toads. Franklin 
Watts, New York. * 

78. . 1988. The Lizard in the Jungle. Gareth Stevens, 

Milwaukee. 



79. Lobel, A. 1986. The Prog and Toad Pop-up Book. Harper & 
Row, New York. 

80. Massie, D.R. 1979. Chameleon was a Spy. Harper & Row, New 
York. 

81. May, J. 1969. Alligator Hole. Follett Publishing, 
Chicago. 

82. Mayer, M. 1980. Prog, Where are You? Dial Books, New 
York. 

83. McCarthy, C. 1987. Poisonous Snakes. Franklin Watts, New 
York. 

84. McClung, R.M. 1954. Bufo: the Story of a Toad. William 
Morrow & Co., New York. 

85. . 1977. Peeper, Pirst Voice of Spring. William 

Morrow & Co. , New York. 

86. . 1979. Snakes: Their Place in the Sun. Garrard 

Publishing, Chicago. 

87. McConnell, K. 1984. The Reptalphabet Encyclopedia. 
Stemmer House Publishers, Owing Mills, MD. 

88. McGowen, T. 1987. Album of Snakes and Reptiles. MacMillan 
Publishing, New York. 

89. Moore, L. 1987. The Snake That Went to School. Scholas- 
tic, New York. * 

90. Morris, D. 1987. Frogs and Toads. Raintree Publishers, 
Milwaukee. 

91. . 1987. Snakes and Lizards. Raintree Publishers, 

Milwaukee. 

92. Oda, H. 1986. The Tadpole. Raintree Publishers, 
Milwaukee. 

93. . 1986. The Tree Frog. Raintree Publishers, 

Milwaukee. 

94. . 1986. The Turtle. Raintree Publishers, Milwaukee. 

95. Parsons, A. 1990. Amazing Snakes. Alfred A. Knopf, New 
York. 

96. Petty, K. 1985. Snakes. Franklin Watts, New York. 

97. . 1986. Crocodiles and Alligators. Franklin Watts, 

New York. 

98. . 1987. Frogs and Toads. Franklin Watts, New York. 

99. . 1987. Reptiles. Franklin Watts, New York. 

100. Pope, J. 1985. A Closer Look at Reptiles, Rev. ed. 
Franklin Watts, New York. 

101. Quinn, K. 1987. Reptiles. Price Stern Sloan, Los Angeles. 

102. Riedman, S.R. and R. Witham. 1974. Turtles: Extinction or 
Survival? Harper & Row, New York. 

103. Roever, J.M. 1979. Snake Secrets. Walker & Co., New York. 

104. Sabin, L. 1985. Reptiles and Amphibians. Troll 
Associates, Mahwah, NJ. 



105. Sanford, W.R. and C.R. Green. 1987. The Boa Constrictor. 
Crestwood House, Mankato, MN. 

106. Schnieper, C. 1989. Chameleons. Carolrhoda Books, 
Minneapolis. * 

107. Schultz, E. 1979. I Can Read About Frogs and Toads. Troll 
Associates, Mahwah, NJ. 

108. Scott, J.D. 1974. Loggerhead Turtle: Survivor of the Sea. 
Putnam's Sons, New York. 

109. . 1984. Alligator. Putnam's Sons, New York. 

110. Selsam, M. 1965. Let's Get Turtles. Harper & Row, New 
York. * 

111. and J. Hunt. 1975. A First Look at Snakes, Lizards 

and Other Reptiles. Walker & Co. , New York. * 

112. and . 1976. A First look at Frogs, Toads and 

Salamanders. Walker & Co., New York. * 

113. and . 1987. A First Look at Poisonous Snakes. 

Walker & Co. , New York. * 

114. Serventy, V. 1986. Lizard. Raintree Publishers, 
Milwaukee. 

115. . 1987. Turtle and Tortoise. Scholastic, New York. 

116. Shannon, G. 1981. Lizard's Song. Greenwillow Books, New 
York. 

117. Shaw, E. 1972. Alligator. Harper & Row, New York. 

118. Simon, H. 1975. Frogs and Toads of the World. Harper & 
Row, New York. 

119. Simon, S. (n.d.) Meet the Giant Snakes. Walker & Co., New 
York. 

120. Spellerberg, I. and M. McKerchar. 1985. Mysteries and 
Marvels of the Reptile World. Usborne Publishing, London. 

121. Spizzirri Publishing Co. Staff. 1981. Reptiles: an 
Educational Coloring Book. Spizzirri Publishing Co. , 
Medinah, IL. 

122. . 1984. Poisonous Snakes: an Educational Coloring 

Book. Spizzirri Publishing Co. , Medinah, IL. 

123. Tarrant, G. 1983. Frogs. Putnam Publishing Group, New 
York. 

124. Taylor, P. 1979. Pythons, Giant Snakes. Scholastic, New 
York. 

125. Thompson, P. 1988. Thank You for the Tadpole. Dell 
Publishing, New York. 

126. Waber, B. 1978. The Snake: a Very Long Story. Houghton 
Mifflin, Boston. 

127. Waters, J. (n.d.) The Hatchlings: a Book about Baby 
Turtles. Walker & Co., New York. * 

128. Webster, D. 1986. Frog and Toad Watching. Julian Messner, 
New York. 

129. White, W., Jr. 1977. The American Chameleon. Sterling 
Publishing, New York. 

130. Williams, J. 1988. The Life Cycle of a Frog. Franklin 
Watts, New York. 



131. Zappler, G. and L. Zappler. 1973. Amphibians as Pets. 
Doubleday & Co., Garden City, NY. 

132. Zim, H. 1949. Snakes. William Morrow & Co., New York. * 

133. . 1950. Progs and Toads. William Morrow & Co., New 

York. * 

134. . 1978. Alligators and Crocodiles (Newly Revised 

Edition). William Morrow & Co., New York. * 

135. and H. Smith. 1953. Reptiles and Amphibians (Golden 

Guide Series) . Western Publishing, New York. * 



8 

Grade Level Index 

All books listed in the bibliography were reviewed by the author. 
Books were assigned to grade levels based on content and reading 
level. Some books assigned to each grade level will likely be 
beyond the capabilities of some young readers. However, they are 
appropriate selections for teachers to read to/with their 
classes. 



Grade 1 : 



Grade 2: 



Grade 3: 



Grade 4: 



Grade 5: 



Grade 6: 



2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 19, 21, 24, 30, 36, 46, 47, 
48, 49, 50, 53, 66, 67, 69, 75, 76, 79, 82, 84, 98, 



110, 116, 117, 121 

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
30, 36, 46, 47, 48 
82, 84, 96, 97, 98 
122, 123, 125, 126 

1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 
45, 46, 47, 48, 52 
85, 86, 87, 88, 90 
110, 111, 112, 113 

126, 127, 130, 133 

1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 

34, 42, 45, 52, 54 
85, 86, 87, 88, 89 
104, 105, 111, 112 

127, 128, 130, 132 

1, 11, 12, 14, 16, 

35, 37, 38, 39, 40 
58, 59, 61, 62, 68 
88, 89, 92, 93, 94 
113, 119, 121, 122 



11, 12, 14, 15, 17 
34, 35, 37, 38, 39 
59, 60, 62, 63, 64 



122, 123, 125, 126, 127. 

7, 8, 9, 10, 16, 18, 19, 21, 24, 27, 

49, 50, 53, 66, 67, 69, 75, 76, 79, 

110, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 121, 
127, 130. 

, 9, 16, 18, 20, 21, 24, 27, 36, 42, 

55, 56, 58, 61, 68, 75, 79, 81, 84, 

91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 

114, 115, 117, 119, 121, 122, 124, 
134. 

, 9, 11, 12, 18, 20, 27, 29, 31, 32, 

55, 56, 58, 61, 68, 73, 74, 80, 81, 

90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99, 

113, 114, 119, 121, 122, 124, 126, 
133, 134, 135. 

20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 29, 31, 32, 34, 

41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 52, 54, 56, 57, 

71, 73, 74, 77, 80, 81, 85, 86, 87, 
99, 100, 102, 104, 105, 111, 112, 

124, 126, 128, 132, 133, 134, 135. 



22, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 
40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 52, 54, 57, 
68, 70, 71, 73, 74, 77, 80, 81, 83, 
87, 88, 89, 100, 102, 104, 105, 108, 109, 113, 118, 
119, 120, 121, 122, 124, 126, 128, 129, 132, 133, 134, 
135. 



Grade 7: 7, 11, 14, 15, 17, 22, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31, 33, 34, 
35, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 51, 54, 57, 59, 60, 62, 63, 
64, 65, 68, 70, 71, 74, 77, 78, 80, 83, 88, 100, 102, 
104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 126, 
129, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135. 



Grade 8: 14, 15, 17, 22, 23, 26, 28, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 44, 

51, 54, 57, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 70, 71, 77, 78, 83, 

88, 100, 102, 103, 106, 108, 109, 118, 119, 120, 121, 
122, 126, 129, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135. 



9 

Taxonomic Index 

Salamanders: 11, 13, 34, 39, 104, 112, 131, 135 

Frogs and Toads: 2, 11, 13, 14, 16, 21, 22, 28, 30, 34, 36, 

44, 46, 47, 48, 50, 56, 57, 63, 64, 66, 67, 

70, 73, 76, 77, 79, 82, 84, 85, 90, 92, 93, 

98, 104, 107, 112, 118, 123, 125, 128, 130, 
131, 133, 135. 

Crocodilians: 11, 13, 15, 24, 27, 32, 34, 43, 49, 55, 61, 65, 

69, 71, 74, 81, 87, 97, 99, 100, 101, 104, 109, 
111, 117, 120, 121, 134, 135. 

Turtles: 1, 3, 11, 13, 24, 27, 29, 32, 34, 59, 61, 65, 69, 71, 

87, 88, 94, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104, 108, 110, 111, 115, 
120, 121, 127, 135. 

Lizards: 3, 11, 12, 13, 18, 19, 24, 25, 26, 27, 32, 34, 44, 45, 
51, 53, 60, 61, 65, 68, 69, 71, 78, 80, 87, 88, 91, 99, 
100, 101, 104, 106, 111, 114, 116, 120, 121, 129, 135. 

Snakes: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 

26, 27, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 52, 54, 
58, 61, 62, 69, 71, 72, 75, 83, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 96, 
99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 111, 113, 119, 120, 121, 
122, 124, 126, 132, 135. 



10 

Section II: Educational Resources 

This section includes a listing of curriculum resources, 
journal articles and other items the author has found valuable 
when working with educators interested in amphibians and 
reptiles. All items have been annotated. 

These materials can be obtained at many academic libraries 
or through interlibrary loan services. 



Anonymous. 1983 
7(1) :l-6. 



Snakes! Snakes! Snakes! Nature Naturally 



Notes: Instructional unit for grades 4-6. Teacher and 
student pages provide illustrations and information about 
snakes in a variety of formats. References and answer key 
provided. 

. 1987. Hands on Herps. Science Activities 24(4): 



27-30, 



Notes: Hands-on activity for grades 1-8. Compares general 
characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Outlines 
procedures for using teaching stations in classroom. 



Chattin, S.S. 1983 
50(4) :20-23. 



Snaking through science. Science Teacher 



Notes: Article encourages activities with live animals, 
especially snakes. Offers some suggestions for care and 
feeding. 

Kramer, D.C. 1984. The classroom animal: garter snakes. 

Science & Children 22(2): 34-35. 
. 1985. The classroom animal: painted turtles. Science & 



Children 



22(8)42-43. 
_. 1985. The classroom animal: 
Children 23(2):30-31. 
_. 1986. The classroom animal: 
Children 23(5): 55-57. 
_. 1987. The classroom animal: 
& Children 24(5): 22-24. 
_. 1987. The classroom animal: 
25(3) :42-43. 



tree frogs. Science & 
box turtles. Science & 
snapping turtles. Science 



newts, 



Science & Children 



Notes: These articles will be useful to classroom teachers. 
Life history information. Tips on feeding, housing and care 
needs. Safety concerns addressed where appropriate. Some 
suggest classroom activities. 



11 

National Wildlife Federation. 1987. Hurray for Herps! 
Naturescope 3(4) : 1-69 . 

Notes: Grades K-8. Many teaching activities. Includes 
reproducible handouts and background information for 
students and teachers. Relatively inexpensive. 

Nethery, L.B. 1984. Children and humane behavior: are snakes 
included? Children's Environments Quarterly l(3):27-29. 

Notes: "Food for thought" for all educators teaching about 
animals. 

Ohanian, S. 1988. Leaps in learning. Learning 16(5):48-52. 

Notes: Uses frog lore as the basis for enrichment in 
language arts, science, social studies and the arts. Useful 
list of reference books included. 

Shaw, J.M. 1985. Ideas. Arithmetic Teacher 32(7):27-32. 

Notes: Four work sheets for practicing math skills. 

Smith, R.W. 1987. The class menagerie: using small animals to 
enrich your science curriculum. Learning 15(5):64-66. 

Notes: Art, writing and science activities with live snails, 
lizards, frogs and toads. Nice approach to integrating 
subjects. 

Yingling, P.S. 1983. Where the wildlife is. Perspectives for 
Teachers of the Hearing Impaired l(3):2-3. 

Notes: Describes techniques using live animals to stimulate 
understanding of life cycle concepts for hearing impaired 
individuals. The suggestions here are valuable to all 
teachers, not just specialists! 



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